Fecha aproximada: 1040 [The earliest moaxaja was written before 1042;
the jarchas must be earlier; 1040 is chosen for mnemonic reasons ---the
next works we'll read could be dated 1140, 1240, and 1340.]
la poesía = (1) poetry; (2) the poem (a relatively short one,
in contrast to a long one, which would normally be called a poema).
el poema = the (longer) poem. (Note: The word is masculine!)
el poeta = the poet.
el verso = line of poetry (NOT a stanza).
la sílaba = syllable. Spanish poetry is usually based on the
number of syllables per line; to determine this: count to the last stressed
syllable, then add one more. See p. 371 of your book.
la estrofa = stanza.
el tema = theme, general idea. (Note: The word is masculine!)
la rima = rhyme, rhyme scheme (e.g.: AA BBB AA CCC AA, where a new
letter represents a new rhyme).
la rima perfecta (or: rima consonante) = perfect rhyme, i.e.,
where both vowel and consonant sounds are identical, from the last stressed
e.g., muertas / puertas.
This is one of two types of rhyme used in Spanish (the other is
asonancia or assonance, which we will see in the next class).
el estribillo = refrain, i.e., line(s) repeated in a poem, usually
at the end of stanzas. [Note: refrán means "proverb", not "refrain".]
la moaxaja = a poem, usually 5 or 6 stanzas long, written in classical
Arabic or Hebrew; usually deals with the theme of love and/or represents
a panegyric to someone; it is serious in tone (compare/contrast with the
zéjel). [There are several alternate spellings, e.g., muwassaha.]
la jarcha = a short poem or song, written in Mozarabic or vulgar Arabic
or Hebrew, and used as the ending for a moaxaja; usually placed in the mouth
of a young girl; it is usually less serious in tone than the moaxaja itself,
and often adds "spice" to the poem. [Jarcha is sometimes spelled "kharja"
el zéjel = a poem written in popular Arabic on light themes
(compare/contrast with the moaxaja); the rhyme scheme is usually: AA BBBA
CCCA, etc.; the term also is used to indicate this type of rhyme scheme,
which we will see at other points in the course.
el romance = (1) romance language, e.g., castellano, mozárabe;
(2) Spanish ballad (which we will study later); (3) Spanish ballad meter
(related to the metrical form seen in the Cantar de mio Cid, studied next
el mozárabe = Mozarabic, either a person who is Christian living
under Moslem rule, or the language spoken by these persons (a romance language,
similar to Spanish).
habib = Arabic word meaning "friend" or "lover".
Yehudá Haleví - Hebrew poet who composed several moaxajas.
Note the 4 puntos comuneslisted on p. 10 (characteristics
shared by the jarchas, villancicos, and cantigas de amigo). Villancicos are
songs/poems we will study later, similar in some respects to the jarchas
and which occasionally use the rhyme scheme of the zéjel.