CHAPTER 4

ARTIFACT IDENTIFICATION

The archaeological manifestations observed at Tomotley can be divided into two groups: objects and subsurface disturbances. The first is represented by the material remnants associated with and occuring as a result of previous human occupations of the area. Consistent sets can be defined on the basis of gross similarities between objects to order the total assemblage of this material. The sets or classes of objects used in this report are: aboriginal ceramics, lithic implements and debitage, Euro-American items (see Appendix II), faunal remains, and botanical residues. The total quantity of material from each of these classes is presented by provenience units in Appendix I. Analysis of the human remains from the 18 identified burials is reported in Appendix III.

The second group of phenomena includes all recognizable subsurface disturbances associated with human activity. These features are divided into classes of pits and postmolds with the former being further subdivided into refuse-containing pits, cob pits, hearths, and burials. These manifestations serve as the primary loci of provenience for the site. The following sections outline the identification goals and processes applied to each set of phenomena. The following chapter will discuss their significance as assemblages.

Aboriginal Ceramics

Because the goal of the archaeological investigation was to define in some manner the Cherokee occupation at the site, the orientation of the ceramic identification was naturally aligned with the identification formats used to describe similar assemblages recovered elsewhere in the valley (Salo 1969, Gleeson 1970 and 1971,and Bates 1982). However, if knowledge of Overhill ceramics is to improve one must not strictly adhere to past schemes but rather modify them by incorporating new observations into the analytical framework.

Previous examinations have primarily concentrated on identifying megascopically defined pastes and surface treatment styles. Less emphasis was placed on vessel forms and their relationship to sherd forms. The identification format developed here elaborates on past schemes by approaching the observational process from an attribute orientation rather than a strict typological one.

The characteristics of each sherd were divided into attribute dimensions which address the motif of the surface treatment or decoration, the type of sherd as defined by the portion(s) of the vessel from which it originated, the megascopically defined tempering agent, and, when identifiable, the vessel form. The size of each fragment was added as a fifth observation to quantify breakage and refuse disposal patterning and to control for the inevitable inability of the observer to accurately identify the other attributes on small sherds.

This framework produces a detailed description of the Overhill ceramics without sacrificing the traditional aim of pigeonholing sherds into classes of perceived culturally specific types. To a limited degree it also provides an identification of decorative, formal, and functional patterns preserved in the archaeological record.

Ceramic attributes

Twenty-nine surface treatment motifs/techniques were recognized in the ceramic material recovered from the 1967 and 1976 excavations. These motifs/techniques were observed on outer vessel walls, vessel lips, and applique rimstrips (called "fillet appliques" by Lewis and Kneberg 1949:105). Figures 4.1-4.5 show examples of various motif/technique combinations.

In addition to these observations the degree of weathering was also noted. Deteriorated sherds were classified as being either moderately weathered or destroyed. The former condition was defined by recognizable worn surfaces on the outer wall of a sherd. Such a condition can appear very similar to smoothed plain surfaces.

Sherds were classified as destroyed if the outer surface was totally eroded away. These sherds were easily identified and most probably reflect the inability of the specimen to withstand constructional, functional, or depositional environments.

Sherds originate from various portions of a vessel. If surface treatments, decorations, and appliques are differentially placed on a vessel then sherds from specific areas of a vessel will naturally display these attributes differentially. In an effort to control for this variability as well as account for certain formal characteristics of the sherds, each vessel fragment was classified according to the portions of the original vessel it represented. Sherds were thus classified as to the presence or absence of rim, neck, and body portions (rim, neck, body, rim-neck-body, rim-body, neck-body, and rim-neck).

Of the seven possible combinations of vessel portions the two most difficult types of sherds to distinguish were rims with missing lips and the neck sherds. If the fragment could not be oriented in a manner that would permit its identification as either a rim or a neck sherd it was classified as a rim-neck sherd type with an indeterminate lip. The attribute "indeterminate" was used whenever a vessel portion did not occur on a sherd in a sufficient amount to provide surface treatment information. For example, a sherd from the shoulder of a jar may not include enough of the neck to allow accurate identification of the surface treatment so it would be described as having an indeterminate neck. The reader should note that the reliability of this vessel portion identification process is directly related to the size of the sherd being identified. Very small fragments were classified as body sherds although many of them actually were part of rims and necks.

Tempering agents consisted of four basic materials: shell, limestone, quartz, and non-quartz minerals (called grit). Because of the highly acidic depositional environment, carbonate tempering agents were often leached from the sherds. In such circumstances the platy nature of shell tempering (Overhill and Dallas types) was used to distinguish it from limestone's more angular characteristic (Longbranch and Hamilton types). However, it should be noted that angular shell fragments can occur and obscure the clear distinctions separating these two agents. This problem was minimized by the fact that limestone tempered sherds tended to be thinner, smaller, and more coarsely textured than shell tempered varieties and therefore fairly recognizable even in the absence of the actual temper.

Quartz temper was divided into fine (0.125-0.25 mm) and very coarse (1.0-2.0 mm) sand size particles (Folk 1974:25). The former characterizes the Connestee series (Woodland III) while the latter is more commonly found in Watts Bar (Woodland I), Patrick (Woodland II), and Qualla (Mississippian IV) vessels. The designation "grit temper" referred to those megascopically examined pastes which contained coarse igneous minerals, not all of which were quartz. Past research has not clearly shown that the co-occurrence of the non-quartz minerals or shell with quartz minerals results from intentional, differential selection on the part of the potter. Although this study recognizes such subtle differences it is highly probable that the differences represent varying procurement strategies rather than technological variability. More detailed analysis of the properties of these agents will need to be undertaken before this question can be resolved (see Steponaitis 1980).

Overhill vessel assemblages are composed of four basic types: the jar, the hemispherical bowl, the cazuela bowl, and the pan (see King 1977). Jars are globular to conically shaped vessels which display rim, neck, and body portions (see Figures 4.6-4.11). Bowls are composed of only rim and body areas (see Figure 4.12). Pans are distinguished by their broad flat bottoms and straight walled rims (see Figures 4.13-4.15). Although generally pans consist only of rim and body portions, they can also display flaring rims to such a degree that they also have necks (see Figure 4.13). The occurrence of such forms makes it somewhat difficult to conclusively identify vessel forms from single fragments, for clearly not all sherds with necks originate from jars. Only in cases where the parent vessel's form was apparent was it so noted. Various sherd combinations were reassembled forming partially reconstructed vessels which helped assign vessel forms to some sherds. From these examples it was possible to estimate the diameter of vessel openings for jars, pans, and hemispherical bowls. The average opening diameter of the shell tempered jars was 27.88 cm (s.d.= 5.71, n= 12); one grit and shell tempered jar had an opening diameter of 32.9 cm; one grit tempered jar had a diameter of 34.4 cm; and one sand tempered jar had an opening of 25.5 cm. The mean opening diameters for shell tempered hemispherical bowls and pans were estimated to be 31.80 (n=2) and 41.88 (n=4), respectively. The size of the vessels, as reflected by the opening diameters, appear to be fairly similar across the site.

The final variable recorded for ceramics was sherd size. The size of each sherd greatly determined the degree to which the other characteristics could be accurately observed. By quantifying size, future analyses will be able to judge the quality of each attribute assignment rejecting whole size classes if need be in order to more accurately define the assemblage (Baden 1982a). Additionally, the breakage patterning as it relates to whole vessels and the refuse disposal practices could be more easily discerned if size categories were included (Binford 1978).

The size categories developed for this study consisted of five ranges: less than 1 cm, 1-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-8 cm, and greater than 8 cm with the measurement being taken along the longest axis of the sherd. These categories are, by convention, refered to as sizes 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 respectively. Because no finescreen ceramic material was retained for analysis, sherds less than 1 cm in size, although present at the site, could not be accounted for. Table 4.1 shows the results of a more detailed analysis of 367 shell tempered sherds in which maximum length, width, and thickness were measured to the nearest tenth of a millimeter. These statistics help define the continuous nature of the size groupings and are useful in defining weights for quantitative comparisons (Baden 1982a).

Description of the ceramic assemblage

In total 14,051 sherds were examined from all contexts of this site. Sherds tempered with shell totaled 12,481 (88.8%), grit and shell 135 (0.9%), limestone 884 (6.3%), fine quartz 103 (0.7%), coarse quartz 84 (0.6%), and grit 361 (2.6%). Two fragments of unfired, untempered clay were also identified along with one pipe fragment of indeterminate tempering. The breakage distributions of the temper classes (shown in Figure 4.16) suggest that shell and grit tempered sherds are more stable than limestone, coarse quartz, and fine quartz sherds. This can be explained, in part, by the fact that the latter tempers are associated with older cultural types and thus have been subjected to more post depositional degradation than either the shell or grit tempered material. It also suggests that a majority of the older material has been redeposited and, for the most part, was not removed from primary deposits.

The 29 motifs/techniques observed in this collection are:

plain - describes all sherds which have been smoothed with no decoration or other surface treatment applied. This surface is common on Mississippian III and IV (Dallas and Overhill) sherds.

brushed - describes all sherds which have been heavily brushed. The brushing can be vertical or horizontal with respect to the rim. This surface treatment is found on fine quartz (Connestee brushed) and limestone (Flint River brushed) tempered sherds (Woodland III -Mississippian I).

burnished - describes all sherds displaying a highly polished, smoothed surface. This was only observed on shell tempered sherds.

check stamped - describes all sherds with a checked motif produced by a paddle. At Tomotley three variations existed: square, rectangular, and diamond shaped checks.

simple stamped - sherds are stamped with parallel lines showing no rectilinear pattern. Note that actual rectilinear patterns when broken into small pieces can resemble simple stamping.

rectilinear stamped - describes all sherds stamped with a patterned of complicated straight lines (not all parallel).

curvilinear stamped - like rectilinear stamped only the motif consists of curved lines.

indeterminate stamped - describes all stamped sherds which could not be assigned to any other stamped motif.

S-twist cordmarked - describes all cordmarked sherds where the cordage is S twisted.

Z-twist cordmarked - like S-twist except the cordage shows a reverse twist.

indeterminate cordmarked - describes all cordmarked sherds which display indistinguishable cordage twist patterns.

fabric impressed - describes all sherds displaying a fabric impression as a surface treatment. This motif is generally associated with salt pans and may reflect molding the vessels in a fabric-lined hole in the ground. The fabric, under such conditions, would facilitate the removal of the vessel after drying.

cob roughened - describes all sherds displaying surface roughening produced by rolling a corncob over the surface of the vessel (Mississippian IV).

cane impressed - describes the cane impressions produced on the base of pans (primarily) and other vessels that have been placed on cane mats prior to firing.

ventral scalloped finger impressions - motif found on rimstrips produced by pressing the fingers under the strip of clay. The result resembles a crimped pie crust.

finger impressed - motif produced when the thumb and fingers are pressed into the rimstrip (not on the underside).

incising - narrow engravings made in clay.

notching - wider than incising; generally short, wedged cuts made in the clay.

punctations - circular holes produced by insertion of a reed into the clay.

right obliques - motif produced by finger impressions, incising, or notching resulting in an oblique oriented pattern (//).

left obliques - like right obliques except the pattern is reversed (\\).

vertical - non-oblique motif associated with notching, incising, and finger impressions.

from the left - direction of application of a decorative motif such as in push pull, notching, or finger impressions.

destroyed - used to describe all sherds whose outer surface was totally missing as opposed to weathered away.

residual - used to describe all sherds whose outer surface was weathered beyond identification but not totally destroyed.

indeterminate - used when insufficient amounts of a surface were available to make an assignment.

detached incised lip - used to describe sherds consisting only of the lip of the vessel and showing signs of incising.

detached notched lip - like detached incised lip only the lip shows signs of being notched.

detached plain lip - like detached incised lip only the lip is not decorated.

The frequency of these attributes by vessel portion are listed below along with the tabulations of the number of sherds identified as originating from a specific type of vessel and whole sherd composite surface treatments:

Indeterminate                      
Total sherds:     1

Lip   Motifs:
             1  Plain                              

Rim   Motifs:
             1  Plain                              

Body  Motifs:
             1  Plain                              

Composite surface treatments:
             1 Pipe fragment                      


Shell                              
Total sherds: 12481

Lip   Motifs:
           953  Plain                              
           613  Indeterminate                      
             3  Vertical finger impressed          
            32  Vertical notched                   
             4  Left oblique notching              
            13  Right oblique notching             
             1  Right oblique incising             
            56  Destroyed                          
            91  Residual                           

Rim   Motifs:
          1360  Plain                              
            37  Check stamped                      
            26  Rectilinear complicated stamped    
             4  Curvilinear complicated stamped    
             7  Indeterminate stamped              
           160  Indeterminate                      
             1  Right oblique incising             
             4  Punctations                        
             2  Fabric impressed                   
            16  Rectangular checked stamped        
             1  Cob roughened                      
           113  Destroyed                          
            35  Residual                           

Neck  Motifs:
           920  Plain                              
            30  Check stamped                      
            34  Rectilinear complicated stamped    
             6  Curvilinear complicated stamped    
             4  Indeterminate stamped              
             3  Indeterminate                      
             1  Right oblique incising             
            14  Rectangular checked stamped        
             3  Diamond checked stamped            
            10  Destroyed                          
            10  Residual                           

Body  Motifs:
          7673  Plain                              
            35  Burnished                          
           563  Check stamped                      
             3  Simple stamped                     
           472  Rectilinear complicated stamped    
            22  Curvilinear complicated stamped    
           154  Indeterminate stamped              
            12  Indeterminate cord marked          
             1  Indeterminate                      
             2  Indeterminate incising             
             2  S-twist cord marked                
             1  Right oblique incising             
             2  Punctations                        
            38  Fabric impressed                   
            25  Rectangular checked stamped        
             5  Diamond checked stamped            
            66  Cob roughened                      
            38  Cane impressed                     
          1304  Destroyed                          
           181  Residual                           

Rimstrip Motifs:
            31  Plain                              
             3  Indeterminate notched              
            26  Ventral scalloped finger impressed 
           191  Vertical finger impressed          
           227  Vertical notched                   
             1  Vertical incised                   
            28  Left oblique notching              
            22  Right oblique notching             
             4  Right oblique incising             
             1  Right oblique finger impressed     
            33  Punctations                        
            10  Notched from the left              
             2  Finger impressed from the left     
            20  Push pull from the left            
            19  Notching from the right            
            11  Push pull from the right           
           105  Destroyed                          
             9  Residual                           

Sherds from jars: 671
Sherds from hemispherical bowls: 148.
Sherds from cazuela bowls:   5
Sherds from pans: 117

Composite surface treatments:
          9072 Plain                              
            35 Burnished                          
           605 Check stamped                      
             3 Simple stamped                     
           511 Rectilinear complicated stamped    
            26 Curvilinear complicated stamped    
           167 Indeterminate stamped              
             1 Indeterminate notched
            12 Indeterminate cord marked          
             2 Indeterminate incising             
             2 S-twist cord marked                
             3 Right oblique incising             
             9 Punctations                        
            40 Fabric impressed                   
            46 Rectangular checked stamped        
             8 Diamond checked stamped            
            61 Cob roughened                      
            45 Cane impressed                     
          1432 Destroyed                          
           221 Residual                           
            37 Rimstrip,detached
             6 Strap handle                       
            15 Loop handle                        
             1 Pipe fragment                      
             2 Node                               
             4 Lug                                
            20 Detached notched lip
             1 Detached incised lip
            84 Detached plain lip
            10 Collared rim


Coarse quartz                      
Total sherds:    84

Lip Motifs: 4 Plain 2 Indeterminate 4 Vertical notched 2 Destroyed Rim Motifs: 7 Plain 2 Indeterminate 1 S-twist cord marked 2 Destroyed Neck Motifs: 1 Plain 1 Check stamped 4 Rectilinear complicated stamped 2 Indeterminate stamped Body Motifs: 17 Plain 6 Check stamped 4 Rectilinear complicated stamped 15 Indeterminate stamped 7 S-twist cord marked 21 Destroyed 4 Residual Sherds from jars: 1 Composite surface treatments: 21 Plain 7 Check stamped 4 Rectilinear complicated stamped 15 Indeterminate stamped 8 S-twist cord marked 23 Destroyed 2 Detached notched lip 4 Residual Fine quartz Total sherds: 103

Lip Motifs: 14 Plain 5 Indeterminate 1 Residual Rim Motifs: 14 Plain 3 Brushed 2 Indeterminate 1 Residual Neck Motifs: 11 Plain 3 Brushed 1 Indeterminate stamped Body Motifs: 15 Plain 14 Brushed 5 Simple stamped 18 Rectilinear complicated stamped 2 Indeterminate stamped 1 Indeterminate cord marked 2 Indeterminate 18 Destroyed 8 Residual Rimstrip Motifs: 8 Vertical notched Sherds from jars: 31 Sherds from hemispherical bowls: 1. Composite surface treatments: 31 Plain 17 Brushed 5 Simple stamped 18 Rectilinear complicated stamped 3 Indeterminate stamped 1 Indeterminate cord marked 18 Destroyed 9 Residual 1 Pode Limestone Total sherds: 884 Lip Motifs: 12 Plain 5 Indeterminate

Rim Motifs: 16 Plain 1 Brushed

Neck Motifs: 12 Plain 1 Vertical brushed Body Motifs: 566 Plain 1 Indeterminate stamped 9 Indeterminate cord marked 1 Indeterminate 10 Z-twist cord marked 2 Fabric impressed 240 Destroyed 36 Residual Sherds from jars: 3 Composite surface treatments: 584 Plain 1 Brushed 1 Indeterminate stamped 9 Indeterminate cord marked 9 Z-twist cord marked 1 Vertical brushed 2 Fabric impressed 241 Destroyed 36 Residual Grit and shell Total sherds: 135 Lip Motifs: 10 Plain 11 Indeterminate 5 Vertical notched Rim Motifs: 14 Plain 10 Check stamped 2 Indeterminate Neck Motifs: 8 Plain 7 Check stamped Body Motifs: 61 Plain 27 Check stamped 3 Indeterminate stamped 11 Destroyed 1 Residual Rimstrip Motifs: 3 Vertical notched 4 Notched from the left Sherds from jars: 26 Sherds from hemispherical bowls: 2. Sherds from cazuela bowls: 1 Composite surface treatments: 82 Plain 36 Check stamped 3 Indeterminate stamped 11 Destroyed 1 Residual 2 Detached plain lip Grit Total sherds: 361 Lip Motifs: 1 Plain 1 Indeterminate notched 29 Indeterminate 4 Vertical notched 3 Left oblique notching 6 Right oblique notching 1 Residual Rim Motifs: 9 Plain 25 Check stamped 6 Indeterminate 4 Diamond checked stamped 1 Destroyed Neck Motifs: 12 Plain 25 Check stamped 6 Diamond checked stamped 1 Destroyed Body Motifs: 40 Plain 100 Check stamped 48 Indeterminate stamped 1 Indeterminate cord marked 45 Diamond checked stamped 64 Destroyed 13 Residual Rimstrip Motifs: 2 Vertical notched 1 Left oblique notching Sherds from jars: 16 Composite surface treatments: 50 Plain 127 Check stamped 48 Indeterminate stamped 1 Indeterminate cord marked 51 Diamond checked stamped 65 Destroyed 13 Residual 4 Detached notched lip 2 Rimstrip, detached Unfired clay Total fragments: 2 Composite surface treatments: 2 Unfired clay

Lithic Artifacts

The 1967 and 1976 field seasons at Tomotley produced 6150 lithic artifacts. The examination of lithic material from these excavations was undertaken to account for all gross typological forms. This was addressed by incorporating a tri-variate nominal analysis format which defines artifacts by blank, working edge, and raw material (see Kimball 1982).

Lithic attributes

The analysis format mentioned above followed the premise that all implements can be classified according to the material from which they were produced (raw material), the implement form which they take (blank), and the functional purpose for which they were used or were intended to be used, albeit subjectively determined (working edge) (see Kimball 1980a and 1982). A majority of the following attribute descriptions are taken from Kimball's work (1980a, 1980b, and 1982):

Working Edge Manufacture Method

Projectile point - bifacial retouch along the lateral edges of the implement which converges to a point at the distal end; the proximal end is retouched to facilitate hafting.

Drill - bifacial retouch along the major portion of the implement which produces a parallel-sided, rod-like projection usually biconvex or diamond-shaped in cross section.

Knife - working edge of an implement which exhibits regular, continuous bifacial retouch producing a sinuous cutting edge.

End Scraper - steep, regular retouch transverse to the longitudinal axis of the implement resulting in a convex or straight working edge; retouch is usually unifacial.

Side Scraper - steep, regular retouch continuous along the lateral edge resulting in a uniform working edge; usually unifacial retouch.

Perforator - fine retouch (either unifacial or bifacial) which results in a converging point, usually larger than a graver.

Piece Esquillee - implement produced by repeated bipolar percussion blows resulting in crushed working edges with sharp perpendicular corners, not simply the result of bipolar reduction of a nodule.

Retouched Edge - fine retouch or simply edge modification resulting from use that departs the face of the implement at least 2 mm from the edge.

Utilized Edge - fine edge modification along the implement or flake edge that exhibits scarring less than 2 mm in length from the edge, assumedly caused by use.

Chipped Hoe - percussion flaking of a cobble producing a bifacial convex working edge transverse to the long axis; sometimes soil polish can be observed indicating use as a hoe.

Netsinker - cobble with two opposing percussed notches at the lateral edges, assumedly made to facilitate attachment to a net or line.

Ground Chisel - biconvex or plano-convex ground bit which is generally shorter than celt or axe bits although the overall implement length may be similar.

Pitted Cobble - cobble with one or more depressions resulting from use as an anvil during bipolar reduction or nut processing.

Hammerstone - cobble or abandoned core exhibiting battered edges from use as a percussor.

Abrader - ad hoc or formalized implement which exhibits grinding and striations resulting from the abrasion of chipped stone tool edges, the abrasion of ground stone tool bits, or the abrasion of bone tools.

Milling Stone - cobble with worn concave surface(s) resulting from the processing of plant and animal foods.

Utilized Mineral - hematite, goethite, or other mineral which has been ground down to extract powder for use as pigment.

Stone Pipe - ground stone smoking pipe with stem element (forms not differentiated) (Figure 4.17).

Stone Vessel - steatite mass that is pecked, chiseled, and ground into a bowl form; assumedly used in food preparation.

Fire-Cracked Rock - rock that exhibits fire-induced fracture or color change; usually remnant of rock hearth.

Combination Tools - implements that exhibit more than one category of working edge (for example: end scraper and piece esquillee on blade, end scraper and graver on blade).

Sandstone tablet - unmodified sandstone resource probably procured for use as an abrader.

Utilized concavity - evidence of utilization possibly related to use as a spokeshave.

Tested nodule - nodule of utilizable material showing signs of preliminary testing.

Grooved ground axe - implement with ground working edge which is biconvex, overall shape is subrectangular with hafting grooves parallel to the long axis of the bit, manufactured by pecking and grinding.

Ground elliptical ceremonial object - description given to a single magnetic, oblong, polished cobble associated with burial 90 (Figure 4.17).

Blank Categories
(Those marked with an * have been measured and tabulated in Table 4.2)

*Biface - blank exhibiting flake removals on both faces by percussion and/or pressure flaking.

Bifacial Thinning Flake - flake struck from a mass being reduced in a bifacial manner by percussion or pressure techniques.

Primary Decortication Flake - debitage from initial stage of core or nodule reduction, flake with striking platform, bulb of force, and >75% cortex on dorsal surface.

Secondary Decortication Flake - same as Primary Decortication Flake except exhibits less than 75% cortex on dorsal surface of flake.

Piece Esquillee - implement produced by repeated bipolar percussion blows resulting in crushed working edges with sharp perpendicular corners.

Bipolar Flake - elongate flake produced in the reduction of a nodule by bipolar percussion; may or may not represent an intentional product.

Bipolar Core - nucleus reduced by a direct percussion bipolar method.

*Blade - blank produced by special core preparation and exhibits regularity in form as distinct from bifacial thinning and primary core reduction debitage; the product exhibits parallel sides, a length at least twice the width; platform preparation, flaking angle, and bulb of force characteristics are distinct from bifacial and primary debitage.

Blade Core - prepared nucleus from which blades have been removed.

Core Rejuvenation Flake - flake or blade removed from a core in order to prepare or modify the striking platform.

Shatter Fragment - angular fragment produced during nodule reduction but cannot be identified as to specific manufacturing process; usually does not exhibit a distinct striking platform area or bulb of force.

Amorphous Core - nucleus of irregular dimension which cannot be ascribed to a specific reduction strategy.

Cobble - naturally occurring cobble whose form and properties are such that limited flaking is required to produce a serviceable tool.

Nodule of Utilizable Material - nodule of chert (usually) of suitable flaking quality.

Non-chert spall - fragment removed from a cobble or larger piece of non-chert material; such a fragment can be used as a blank for producing formalized ground stone implements.

Undesignated flake/interior flake - nondescript flake removed during some indeterminate stage of a reduction sequence.

*Preform - roughed out blank; generally bifacially worked into a formalized tool.

Steatite bowl fragment - steatite pecked, chiseled, and ground into a bowl form.

Lower Kirk corner notched - excurvate base, corner notched projectile point.

Upper Kirk corner notched - straight to incurvate base, corner notched projectile point.

Kirk stemmed/Stanly stemmed - straight to incurvate base, straight stemmed projectile point.

Morrow Mountain I - excurvate base, round stemmed projectile point.

Morrow Mountain II stemmed - excurvate base, tapered stemmed projectile point; more elongated stem than that of Morrow Mountain I.

Savannah River stemmed - straight base, straight stemmed projectile point.

Iddins undifferentiated stemmed - straight base, straight stemmed or corner removed projectile point.

*Dallas excurvate - straight base, excurvate blade, small to medium triangular point; generally found in mortuary context from Mississippian III-IV (Figure 4.18).

*Hamilton incurvate - incurvate base, incurvate blade, small triangular projectile point; generally found in mortuary contexts from Mississippian I-III (Figure 4.18).

Lithic Raw Materials

Knox Black Chert - small nodular chert with a smooth, calcareous cortex and homogeneous black to dark gray interior that is translucent, lustrous, and extremely fine grained. This chert represents the best lithic resource in Tellico.

Knox Black Banded Chert - large nodular chert with relatively smooth calcareous cortex and concentrically banded matrix composed of black and white or black and gray layers. Interior is translucent (in the black bands), lustrous, and microcrystalline. Incipient fracture planes are common.

Knox Light Gray Banded Chert - large nodular chert that occurs naturally as angular fragments with a rough, light colored cortex. The matrix is defined by evenly spaced concentric bands of light gray and white coloration. The structure is generally coarser grained than Knox Black Chert and is opaque.

Knox Dark Gray Banded Chert - large chert that occurs in large oval nodules which weather to irregular masses. The cortex is extremely rough, pitted, and thin. The matrix is marked by extremely thin bands alternating dark gray and light gray exhibiting a swirled but roughly parallel pattern. The texture is coarse grained and weathered nodules are hackled with crystalline silica filled cavities.

Knox Mottled Chert - chert characterized by mottled matrix composed of large (>2 mm) oolites which are contorted. Occurs as irregular blocks with a rough, clear cortex. The nucleus is coarse grained and coloration varies depending upon oolite configuration and the mineral content of the constituent silica.

Knox Oolitic Chert - chert characterized by small (<1 mm), round oolites (resembling fish eggs) with a grainy, dull, and opaque texture. Occurs as irregular blocks usually as a residuum product.

Knox Porcellaneous Chert - large angular blocks of chert with a light colored, dull, and opaque nucleus. The matrix is homogeneous but possesses numerous incipient fracture planes.

Chalcedony - chalcedony is nonlocal to the Tellico Project Area but is recorded from Shady Dolomite formations just south (Tellico Plains) and northeast (Walland).

Other Sedimentary Lithic Resources - dolomite, limestone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and hematite were all utilized and are locally available to the survey area either in the riverbed or in the uplands.

Metamorphic Lithic Resources - quartzite, gneiss, schist, graphite, and slate were obtained from the riverbed, older alluvial terraces, or within the project area. Steatite is nonlocal to the lower Little Tennessee River Valley but may have been procured from western North Carolina or northeastern Tennessee (Quentin Bass, personal communication), which is the closest resource area.

Igneous Lithic Resources - quartz is available from the Little Tennessee River and the older alluvial terraces. Ultimately this resource along with mica, hornblende, and magnetite derives from the mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina.

Cortex - term applied to weathered chert that cannot be associated with a specific resource; extremely porcellaneous.

Knox chert residuum - weathered forms of Knox formation chert.

Light gray, heat altered - heat altered Knox banded chert.

The artifact distribution for this assemblage is as follows:

Unmodified/biface                                                
         6  Knox black chert                   
         6  Knox black banded chert            
         1  Other chert (suspected local)          
         6  Vein quartz                        
         3  Dark gray, variety 2                  

Unmodified/non-chert spall 1 Limestone Unmodified/blade(prominent bulb of force) 15 Knox black chert 2 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Knox mottled chert 2 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/bipolar flake 112 Knox black chert 46 Knox black banded chert 22 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Other chert (suspected local) 3 Lt. gray chert (heat altered, 3) 18 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/decortication flake,primary 243 Knox black chert 76 Knox black banded chert 60 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 2 Knox mottled chert 1 Knox porcellaneous chert 1 Other chert (suspected local) 3 Vein quartz 39 Cortex 2 Lt. gray chert (heat altered, 3) 55 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/decortication flake, secondary 435 Knox black chert 145 Knox black banded chert 76 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Knox mottled chert 5 Knox porcellaneous chert 2 Other chert (suspected local) 2 Chalcedony 8 Vein quartz 6 Lt. gray chert (heat altered, 3) 55 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/bifacial thinning/trimming flake 2223 Knox black chert 459 Knox black banded chert 485 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 44 Knox mottled chert 2 Knox oolitic chert 6 Knox porcellaneous chert 21 Other chert (suspected local) 36 Chalcedony 36 Quartzite 84 Vein quartz 21 Lt. gray chert (heat altered, 3) 481 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/shatter fragment 115 Knox black chert 89 Knox black banded chert 59 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Knox porcellaneous chert 7 Other chert (suspected local) 1 Chalcedony 16 Limestone 1 Mica schist 1 Slate 10 Vein quartz 1 Mica 1 Knox chert residuum 1 Cortex 6 Lt. gray chert (heat altered, 3) 39 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/blade without striking platform 4 Knox black chert 2 Knox black banded chert Unmodified/blade core 3 Knox black chert Unmodified/undesignated flake/interior flake 3 Knox black chert 3 Knox black banded chert 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Knox mottled chert Unmodified/bipolar core 10 Knox black chert 6 Knox black banded chert 1 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/amorphous core 27 Knox black chert 3 Knox black banded chert 2 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Knox mottled chert 6 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/nodule of utilizable material 18 Knox black chert 14 Knox black banded chert 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 2 Chalcedony 2 Steatite 2 Vein quartz 2 Dark gray, variety 2 Unmodified/nodule or fragment of nonutilizeable material 10 Knox black chert 9 Knox black banded chert 5 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 6 Knox chert residuum Unmodified/core rejuvenation flake or blade 1 Knox black chert 2 Knox black banded chert 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert Unmodified/preform 2 Vein quartz Projectile point fragment/projectile point 2 Knox black chert 2 Knox black banded chert 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 2 Dark gray, variety 2 Projectile point fragment/bifacial thinning/trimming flake 1 Knox black banded chert Projectile point fragment/preform 2 Knox black chert 4 Knox black banded chert 2 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Quartzite Projectile point fragment/proj. pt. fragment cf. Archaic 2 Knox black chert 2 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Dark gray, variety 2 Drill/preform 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Other chert (suspected nonlocal) End scraper/projectile point 1 Knox black chert End scraper/bifacial thinning/trimming flake 2 Knox black chert

End scraper/L. Kirk corner notch 2 Knox black chert End scraper/U. Kirk corner notch 1 Knox black banded chert Side scraper/decortication flake, secondary 1 Knox black chert Side scraper/bifacial thinning/trimming flake 1 Knox black chert 1 Knox black banded chert Side scraper/shatter fragment 1 Knox black chert 1 Knox black banded chert Perforator/bifacial thinning/trimming flake 1 Knox black chert Perforator/amorphous core 1 Knox black chert Piece esquillee/projectile point 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert Piece esquillee/biface 1 Knox black chert Piece esquillee/piece esquillee 11 Knox black chert 7 Knox black banded chert 2 Knox lt. gr. banded chert Retouched edge/decortication flake, secondary 1 Knox black banded chert Utilized edge/biface 1 Knox black chert Utilized edge/non-chert spall 1 Slate Utilized edge/bipolar flake 1 Knox black chert Utilized edge/decortication flake,primary 3 Knox black chert 1 Dark gray, variety 2

Utilized edge/decortication flake, secondary 5 Knox black chert 2 Knox black banded chert Utilized edge/bifacial thinning/trimming flake 40 Knox black chert 5 Knox black banded chert 1 Lt. gray chert (heat altered, 3) Utilized edge/amorphous core 1 Knox black chert Utilized edge/nodule of utilizable material 1 Knox black chert Chipped hoe/non-chert spall 1 Mica schist Chipped hoe/cobble 1 Mica schist Netsinker/cobble 1 Sandstone 6 Conglomerate 2 Quartzite 1 Slate Ground chisel/non-chert spall 1 Slate Hammerstone/cobble 6 Quartzite Abrader/cobble 1 Sandstone Milling stone/cobble 1 Sandstone 1 Conglomerate 3 Quartzite Utilized mineral/shatter fragment 1 Mica Utilized mineral/nodule of utilizable material 2 Mica schist 3 Mica 5 Hematite/goethite 5 Graphite

Stone pipe/non-chert spall 24 Steatite 1 Slate Stone vessel fragment/steatite bowl fragment 1 Steatite Fire cracked rock/cobble 1 Quartzite Fire cracked rock/shatter fragment 1 Sandstone 2 Conglomerate 13 Quartzite 1 Mica schist Knife/bifacial thinning/trimming flake 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Chalcedony Knife/iddins undifferentiated stemmed 1 Knox porcellaneous chert Sandstone tablet/non-chert spall 1 Sandstone Sandstone tablet/cobble 5 Sandstone Utilized & retouched edge/decortication flake,primary 1 Knox black chert Utilized & retouched edge/decortication flake, secondary 1 Knox black chert Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/projectile point 1 Knox black chert 1 Knox black banded chert 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Knox porcellaneous chert 1 Vein quartz Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/L. Kirk corner notch 2 Knox black chert 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Chalcedony 1 Vein quartz 1 Dark gray, variety 2 Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/U. Kirk corner notch 1 Knox black banded chert Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/Kirk stemmed/Stanly stemmed 1 Knox black chert 1 Knox black banded chert Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/Morrow Mtn. I 2 Knox black chert 1 Vein quartz Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/Morrow Mtn. II stemmed 1 Knox black banded chert 1 Vein quartz Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/Savannah river stemmed 1 Knox mottled chert Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/Iddins undifferentiated stemmed 1 Knox black banded chert 2 Knox mottled chert 1 Knox porcellaneous chert 1 Other chert (suspected local) 1 Other chert (suspected nonlocal) 1 Vein quartz Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/Dallas excurv. triangular 1 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Vein quartz Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/Hamilton incurvate 8 Knox black chert 1 Knox black banded chert Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/proj. pt. fragment cf. Archaic 3 Knox black banded chert 2 Knox lt. gr. banded chert 1 Knox oolitic chert 2 Vein quartz 1 Dark gray, variety 2 Proj. pt.:straight lateral edge/proj. pt. fragment cf. Miss. 5 Knox black chert 1 Knox mottled chert Proj. pt.:serrated lateral edge/U. Kirk corner notch 2 Knox black chert Proj. pt.:serrated lateral edge/proj. pt. fragment cf. Archaic 1 Knox black chert

Pitted cobble/cobble 1 Conglomerate 6 Quartzite 1 Hornblende Utilized concavity/decortication flake,primary 1 Knox black banded chert Hammerstone & pitted cobble/cobble 1 Quartzite Ground stone implement (indet.)/non-chert spall 1 Limestone 3 Slate Tested nodule/nodule of utilizable material 3 Knox black chert Grooved ground axe/non-chert spall 1 Slate Ground elliptical ceremonial object/cobble 1 Magnetite

Botanical Identification

A total of 4.85 kgms of plant material was examined. Of that, 262.25 gm of nut fragments, 1039 seed fragments, and 7858 wood fragments were classified. Table 4.3 lists the total mass and fragment counts, where applicable, for all the material inspected.

The purpose of the botanical analysis was threefold: 1) to identify the genus species and tabulate the mass of selected samples of wood charcoal, 2) to identify and tabulate by counts samples of seed fragments, and 3) to identify and tabulate the mass of charred nut fragments. Because the material was not systematically sampled in the field, detailed statistical analysis would be inappropriate, therefore, discussion of this material will be limited to descriptions of the identification procedure and its qualitative results.

Botanical attributes

Observations made on all the botanical residues were limited to measures of their mass and counts of fragments. The quantity of material from a specific unit determined whether or not a complete examination was undertaken. If the sample was sufficiently large (several hundred grams) a specified fraction was drawn using a riffle sorter.

The first step of the analysis process consisted of passing the material through a series of three screens (2mm, 1mm, and 500 microns). The mass of the residual material passing through all the screens was weighed and recorded. All other carbonized fragments were sorted into seven groups for weighing: 1) nut fragments by genus species, 2) seeds, 3) wood charcoal, 4) beans, 5) peach seeds, 6) maize, and 7) cucurbita fragments. The seeds were separated into genus species categories, divided into whole and fragmentary groups and then counted. The wood charcoal samples, when judged too large, were sampled by mass into 12.5, 25, or 50 percent subsamples. The fragments were then identified as to genus and counted.

Faunal Identification

An examination of 13,998 vertebrate and invertebrate remains was undertaken in order to identify species and skeletal elements. In addition specific discrete observations were made to help clarify the characteristics of the assemblage. It should be noted that the highly acidic soils strongly affected the integrity of the remains and may have biased the pattern to some degree by non-randomly removing elements from the archaeological records. lacking the techniques to measure or correct for such a factor, the discussion of the remains , with reservations, assumes the effect was minimal.

Faunal attributes

Beyond identifying class, genus species, and anatomical element each fragment was sized in a manner similar to that used in the ceramic analysis. Certain discrete attributes were also noted when possible or applicable. These included the side from which the element came and whether it was burnt, chewed, digested, or modified by man (i.e. worked or cut). The number of elements identified for each genus species is:

      Indeterminate Mammal
           
         9683 indeterminate       
            1 antler              
            3 rib                 
           10 tooth               
            7 zygopophysis        

      Bat sp. (Myotis sp.)
            1 long bone           

      Bear, black (Ursus americanus)                       
            1 acetabulum          
            2 astragalus          
            1 calcaneum           
            2 carpal              
            2 claw                
            1 fibula              
            1 mandible w/teeth    
            2 mandible w/out teeth
            9 metapodial          
            1 parietal            
            5 phalanx, 1st        
            2 phalanx, 2nd        
            1 premaxilla          
            1 ramus               
            1 temporal, mastoid   
            1 tibia               
            1 toe, 2nd            
            1 tooth, incisor      
            1 tooth, premolar     
            1 tooth, decid. premolar
            2 tooth, canine       
            1 ulna                

cf. Bear, black 1 humerus 1 tooth, incisor

Beaver (Castor canadensis) 1 caudal vertebra 1 femur 1 tooth, cheek 1 ulna cf. Beaver 1 scapula Bobcat/Lynx (Felis rufus/Felis lynx) 4 claw Canis sp. 1 tooth, canine cf. Canis sp. 1 thoracic vertebra Cervidae 1 tooth Cow/Bison (Bos taurus/Bison bison) 1 cervical vertebra 1 metacarpal 1 radio-ulna 1 temporal Cow/Elk/Bison (Bos taurus/Cervus elaphus/Bison bison) 2 ILIUM 1 phalanges 1 rib 2 scapula 1 tooth, incisor 1 zygopophysis

Deer, white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus) 1 acetabulum 3 antler 10 astragalus 1 atlas or 1st vertebra 1 axis 8 calcaneum 14 carpal 1 carpometacarpus 3 cervical vertebra 5 claw, dew 8 humerus 6 hyoid 2 ILIUM 1 innominate 3 ischium 4 lateral maleous 4 lumbar vertebra 18 mandible w/out teeth 9 maxilla w/out teeth 20 metacarpal 1 metapodial, accessor 11 metapodial 23 metatarsal 3 occipital condyle 2 patella 14 phalanges 28 phalanx, 1st 11 phalanx, 2nd 2 pubis 12 radius 1 ramus 3 rib 6 scapula 15 sesmoid 4 skull 7 tarsal 1 tarsal, 1st 2 temporal, mastoid 1 thoracic vertebra 5 tibia 7 toe, 2nd 1 toe, 3rd 142 tooth 36 tooth, cheek 6 tooth, incisor 5 tooth, premolar 6 tooth, molar 1 tubercalis 3 ulna 1 mandible,condyle 1 metatarsal,dew 6 temporal 1 frontal w/antler cf. Deer, white-tailed 130 rib cf. Dog, domestic (Canis familiaris) 1 tooth, molar cf. Elk 2 tooth, cheek 1 tooth, premolar Horse (Equs equs) 1 calcaneum 1 mandible w/teeth 1 maxilla w/teeth 1 phalanx, 2nd 3 tooth 2 tooth, cheek cf. Horse 2 metapodial, accessor 1 tarsal Mink (Mustela vison) 1 atlas or 1st vertebra 5 cervical vertebra 2 femur 1 ILIUM 1 innominate 1 occipital condyle 1 sacrum 2 thoracic vertebra 2 tibia Mole, Eastern (Scalopus aquaticus) 1 humerus 1 sternum Mouse (Cricetidae sp.) 6 astragalus 3 calcaneum 1 carpal 20 femur 1 frontal 10 humerus 22 innominate 26 mandible w/out teeth 10 maxilla w/out teeth 3 nasal 1 occipital 6 premaxilla 8 radius 7 rib 1 sacrum 15 scapula 34 skull 20 tibia 20 tooth, incisor 8 ulna 72 vertebra 1 zygomatic Opossum (Didelphus virginiana) 2 mandible w/out teeth Pig, domestic (Sus scrota) 2 mandible w/out teeth 21 tooth 1 tooth, cheek 3 tooth, incisor 1 tooth, molar Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 1 mandible w/out teeth 2 radius 1 tooth, premolar 1 tooth, canine 1 ulna Rat, rice 1 mandible w/out teeth 2 maxilla w/out teeth 6 tooth, incisor Squirrel, fox (Sciurus niger) 1 femur 1 humerus 2 maxilla w/out teeth 2 ulna Squirrel, gray (Sciurus carolinensis) 1 clavicle Squirrel sp. (Sciurus sp.) 2 astragalus 1 atlas or 1st vertebra 2 calcaneum 5 femur 2 frontal 9 humerus 2 innominate 2 mandible w/out teeth 2 maxilla w/out teeth 1 nasal 1 occipital 1 premaxilla w/teeth 1 premaxilla 2 radius 2 scapula 4 skull 6 tibia 2 tooth 3 tooth, cheek 5 tooth, incisor 2 ulna cf. Squirrel sp. 1 calcaneum Woodchuck (Marmota monax) 1 tooth, cheek Woodrat, Eastern (Neotoma floridana) 1 tooth, molar Rabbit (Sylvilagus sp.) 1 femur 1 humerus 2 lumbar vertebra 1 radius 1 tooth, incisor Microtus/Pitymys 1 mandible w/out teeth 1 skull Cricetidae 3 mandible w/out teeth Bird, indet. 504 indeterminate 6 acetabulum & ischium 260 egg shell 1 humerus 1 vertebra

Chicken (Gallus gallus) 1 beak 1 carpometacarpus 3 coracoid 1 fibula 1 humerus 2 radius 1 scapula 1 sternum 2 ulna cf. Chicken 1 carpometacarpus 1 coracoid 1 dentary 1 furculum 1 humerus 1 sternum Duck sp. (Anas sp.) 1 articular Duck, ruddy (Oxyura jamaicenis) 1 humerus Duck, small 1 radius 1 tarsometatarsus Goose sp. 1 furculum Hawk sp. (Buteo sp.) 1 claw Hawk, red-tailed (Buteo jamaicensis) 1 carpometacarpus Pigeon, passenger 3 carpometacarpus 7 coracoid 1 femur 5 humerus 4 radius 4 scapula 1 sternum 1 synsacrum 2 tarsometatarsus 2 tibiotarsus 4 ulna Wilson's snipe 1 humerus Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) 1 carpometacarpus 3 cervical vertebra 5 coracoid 1 dentary 1 femur 1 fibula 2 humerus 2 quadrate 1 scapula 1 tarsometatarsus 1 tibiotarsus 6 ulna 1 digit cf. Turkey 1 coracoid 2 femur 1 tarsometatarsus 3 digit Fish, indet. 387 indeterminate 11 scale, ctenoid 881 scale, indet. fish 52 vertebra Bass (Micropterus sp.) 1 cleithrum 1 hyomandibular Catfish (Bagre sp.) 1 indeterminate 1 cleithrum 2 operculum 2 spine Centrarchidae 1 articular 1 cleithrum 1 operculum Drum, freshwater (Aplodinotus granniens) 1 indeterminate 1 articular 1 hyomandibular 3 maxilla w/out teeth 2 plate 1 spine 33 tooth 4 otolith Gar sp. (Lepisosteus sp.) 1 scale, indet. fish Hog sucker, Northern (Hypentelium nigricans) 1 dentary Minnow sp. (Cyprinidae) 2 gill arch Redhorse sp. (Moxostoma sp.) 2 cleithrum 1 dentary 1 interoperculum 4 maxilla w/out teeth 1 preoperculum 1 tripus 1 articular 1 basioccipital 1 coracoid 1 frontal 1 gill arch 4 hyomandibular 3 metapterygoid 7 operculum 2 quadrate 4 suboperculum Redhorse, river (Moxostoma carinatum) 2 basihyal 5 gill arch cf. Redhorse, river 1 webberian apparatus Sauger/walleye (Stizostedion canadense/vitreum) 1 articular 1 maxilla w/out teeth 1 palatine 1 premaxilla Sucker (Catostomidae) 1 indeterminate 1 cleithrum 3 gill arch 3 hyomandibular 2 intercentral 1 interoperculum 1 maxilla w/out teeth 1 operculum 1 quadrate 5 suboperculum 1 tripus 2 supracleithrum Sucker/redhorse 1 operculum Colubridae 15 vertebra Crotalidae 1 vertebra Kinosternidea 1 plastron Snake sp. 1 caudal vertebra 2 rib Turtle sp. 75 indeterminate 11 pleural Turtle, box (Terrapene carolina) 12 indeterminate 1 carapace 1 entoplastron 4 hyoplastron 1 ILIUM 2 long bone 2 mandible w/out teeth 41 marginal 2 maxilla w/out teeth 6 neural 1 phalanx, 1st or 2nd 6 plastron 3 plastron; anterior 1 3 plastron; posterior 39 pleural 1 xiphiplastron Turtle, softshell (Trionx sp.) 1 indeterminate 2 innominate 1 ischium Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) 1 tibio-fibula Frog/toad 3 humerus 1 ILIUM 1 long bone 1 radio-ulna 2 vertebra Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) 1 dentary 8 vertebra Rana sp. 1 humerus 2 ILIUM 1 tibio-fibula 2 urostyle cf. Rana sp. 1 radio-ulna 1 scapula 1 vomer Salamander sp. 1 dentary 2 vertebra Toad (Bufo sp.) 1 ILIUM 1 scapula Toad, spadefoot (Pelobatidae) 1 skull Bivalve, indet. 139 bivalve 18 bivalve, no umbo Gastropod, indet. 3 shell Actinonaias ligamentina 19 bivalve cf. Athearnia anthonyi 1 shell Dromas dromas 18 bivalve cf. Dromas dromas 1 bivalve Elliptio crassidens 3 bivalve Elliptio dilatatus 3 bivalve Epioblasma propinqua 1 bivalve Fusconia barnesiana 1 bivalve cf. Fusconia barnesiana 1 bivalve Fusconia subrotunda 28 bivalve cf. Glymphalina indentata 4 shell Goniobasis sp. 2 shell cf. Goniobasis sp. 1 shell Hawaiia miniscula 109 shell cf. Hawaiia miniscula 1 shell Helicodiscus notius 44 shell Io fluvialis 3 shell Lampsilis ovata 1 bivalve cf. Lampsilis ovata 1 bivalve Leptoxis subglobosa 12 shell Lexingtonia dolabelloides 1 bivalve Lithasia verrucosa 6 shell Mesodon sp. 2 shell Obovaria retusa 1 bivalve Plethobasus cooperianus 2 bivalve cf. Plethobasus cooperianus 1 bivalve Pleurobema oviforme 2 bivalve Pleurobema plenum 1 bivalve Pleurobema pyramidatum 2 bivalve Pleurobema sp. 2 bivalve Pleurocera canaliculatum 47 shell Pleurocera unciale 7 shell Pleurocera sp. 1 columella 7 shell Polygyrid 5 shell cf. Ptychobranchus subtentum 1 bivalve Ptychobranchus/Elliptio sp. 2 bivalve cf. Vetridens gularis 5 shell Villosa sp. 2 bivalve Zonitoides arboreus 47 shell Oxytrema canaliculatum 1 shell

Feature Analysis

The analysis of subsurface features exposed during the 1976 excavations was divided into two sections: 1) an examination of refuse-containing and burial pits and 2) an analysis of postmolds associated with recognizable structures. The inclusion of these descriptions is important for two reasons. First, the excavations undertaken in 1976 were designed to recover spatial information related to these units. Secondly, refuse-containing pits and burials serve as provenience loci for all but a small amount of surface recovered material. Therefore the characteristics of these units must be adequately defined in order to integrate all of the material recovered at the site.

Feature attributes

When excavated the measurement of the length (L), width (W), and depth below the excavation surface (D) of each pit was recorded to the nearest tenth of a foot. In addition the form of the unit's opening and cross-sectional profile was drawn. The pit attributes of primary interest are the area of the opening and the volume of the excavated portion. Note that approximately one foot of the original depth was removed by the pan during stripping and therefore the excavated volume will always be less than the actual original volume. A measurement technique was developed by which the opening area as well as the excavated volume of each unit could be calculated from the pit diagrams.

A plexiglass template was designed with 24 axes superimposed at 15 degree intervals. Each axis was then calibrated in millimeters. The template was then placed over the outlines of the opening and the profile and 24 and 13 measurements were recorded, respectively. These measures represent the distances between the outer boundary and an arbitrary center point (cf. Stewart 1977).

Given the length of each of the 24 axes and the angles between them estimates of the area of each opening were calculated. The 13 profile measures were used to calculate the volume of the pit using the equation for the volume of spherical segments (see Figure 4.19). This method was applied to 112 pits and 18 burials. The remaining 37 pits lacked adequate diagrams or were too small to be accurately measured with the template. To estimate the opening's area and the volume of these units, another method was developed.

By inspection the opening area derived from the template measurements compared quite favorably, given the recording errors inherent during excavation, with the value generated using the formula for the area of an ellipse (A= [LW#]/4). The volume estimate derived from one half the ellipsoidal volume ( [LWD##]/6) proved to be a less accurate predictor of the measured pit volume. To correct for this inaccuracy the ellipsoidal estimate was linearly regressed onto the first method's estimate which produced, after substituting for length, width, and depth, the volume equation:

V = 0.564LWD + 2.8416

with a standard error of 5.13 cu.ft and a r value of 0.9712. Table 4.4 lists the length, width, and depth along with the estimates of post-excavation opening area and volume.

To characterize the structures each plotted house was examined and the postmolds forming what was perceived to be the outer wall were recorded as to identification number, radius, and post-excavation depth. Of the 19 presumed structural patterns identified in the field, 17 were of adequate quality for analysis. Structures 23 and 33 were too fragmentary to be analyzed further.

Description of the features

A total of 165 pits were uncovered during the 1976 excavations. This includes re-exposing Features 1 and 4 from the 1967 testing. Although Features 2 and 3 were not observable in 1976, their contents were re-examined for this report since they too were found in the vicinity of Area 2. Of the 165 pits, 18 contained identifiable human remains (Burials 81-84, 86-99). Eleven were recognized as cob pits (Features 302-307, 347, 357, 402, and 412) (Figure 4.20). Four were rectangular pits containing 2-4 postmolds (Features 1, 323, 352, and 387) (Figure 4.21). There was one hearth (Feature 393) (Figure 4.22), one bell-shaped pit (Feature 325), and one burned stump (Feature 312). The remaining units were all ellipsoidal basins of various sizes (Figure 4.23). Unit designations "Feature 301" and "Burial 85" were not assigned.

Of the 21 identified structures 9 were rectangular in form (Structures 16-18, 24-26, and 29-31), 11 were square (Structures 19-23, 27, and 32-34), and one was octagonal (Structure 28) (see Figures 4.24-4.34). The statistics on each of the 17 analyzed patterns are presented in Table 4.5. In addition to the aboriginal structural patterns, an Anglo-American, square post fence row was also revealed in Area 5 (see Figures 3.9 and 4.34). Based on morphology, these postholes probably date to the second half of the nineteenth century (Richard Polhemus, personal communication 1982). Cultural associations were defined for each feature and burial based on the presence of significant quantities of diagnostic material. These assignments are recorded in Table 4.6.

A circular burial region was partially exposed in Area 5. Schroedl (1978b) has discussed the importance of this complex in terms of what is known about a limited number of excavated early Mississippian burial manifestations. The exposed pits (n=22) form a circular pattern with a diameter of approximately 40 feet. Of the 22 pits six contain sparsely identifiable human remains. Burial 97, which lies in the center of the ring, has a C14 date of 1260 + 135 B.P. (GX-7733) (corrected following Damon et al. 1974 to A.D. 712 + 144) placing it within the Woodland III to Mississippian I periods. The artifacts associated with the other burials and pits do not contradict this assignment. The most significant grave accompanyments were the Hamilton incurvate projectile points recovered from Burials 92 (n=3) and 95 (n=1). These artifacts tend to be associated with burials during these time periods (Kimball 1982). Burial 92 was also unique in that it contained at least six individuals.

The other pits were low density units similar in content with the burials. The poor preservation of human remains (see Appendix III) from this portion of the site leaves open the possibility that many of the other pits are actually unrecognizable burial locations. The proximity of this complex to the approximate location of the mounds observed by Emmert (n.d.) and recorded by Thomas (1894:379:380) suggests that it may be the remnant of some burial mound or cemetery. If this is the case then these remains are unlike any found elsewhere within the region.