Cover art by Thomas Whyte

Tomotley:
An Eighteenth Century Cherokee Village

by
William W. Baden

With Contributions By
David Glassman
Linda F. Carnes

A report submitted to the Tennessee Valley Authority and the National Park Service in accordance with the provisions of Tennessee Valley Authority contracts TV#42163A and TV#56256A and National Park Service contract C#5000-9-5944.
Prepared under the supervision of
Dr. Jefferson Chapman
Principal Investigator

November 1983
Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many people become involved in a project such as this. I would like to express my thanks to the members of the agencies and institutions without whom the project could never have been begun and completed, especially Mr. Maxwell Ramsey, Mr. J. Bennett Graham, Mr. Thomas Waller, and Dr. Major C.R. McCollough of the Tennessee Valley Authority; Dr. Bennie Keel and Dr. Stephanie Rodeffer of the National Park Service; and Dr. William M. Bass and Dr. Carl O. Thomas, the University of Tennessee.

The 1976 excavations were supervised by Dr. Alfred K. Guthe, Principal Investigator, and directed by Dr. Gerald F. Schroedl. I would like to thank Dr. Guthe for making unpublished information concerning the 1973-4 excavations at the site available to me. I would like to offer special thanks to Dr. Schroedl for his help in reconstructing the 1976 field season and, more importantly, for the stimulating discussions we had concerning Cherokee archaeology.

Field assistant for the 1976 excavations was Robert Newman. Ann Magennis supervised the burial excavations. The field crew consisted of:

James BatesJoe Henderson
Tracy BrownDebi Jones
Judy CanonicoRobert Jolly
Marion DrescherKeith Kleber
Lori Ann FryeJill Mihalow
Leslie HickersonThomas Zwicker

The Principal Investigator for the 1979-83 site analysis was Dr. Jefferson Chapman. At times consultation and advice from friends and colleagues were required. I would like to express my appreciation to Mr. James Bates, Mr. Larry Kimball, Mr. Stephen Davis, Mr. Thomas Ford, Mr. Brett Riggs, Mr. Richard Polhemus, and Dr. Carl Kuttruff for their expert advice which greatly facilitated the production of the report.

This report required the technical services of a great many people. Acknowledging their work does not adequately express my gratitude for their efforts and perseverance. These people include: Mr. Richard Anuskiewicz (analysis of postmolds), Mrs. Marla Baden (data entry), Ms. Nancy Bell (lithic identification), Mr. Neal Brun (drafting), Mr. Arthur Bogan (faunal identification), Ms. Linda F. Carnes (identification of all Euro-American artifacts and authorship of Appendix II), Ms. Marion Drescher (drafting), Dr. David Glassman (analysis of the burial material and authorship of Appendix III), Ms. Andrea Brewer Shea (botanical identification) and Thomas Whyte (cover art work). All computer work was undertaken at the University of Tennessee's Computing Center, Knoxville. I would like to offer my thanks to Mrs. Alice Beauchene of UTCC for her ability to span two disciplines and solve problems and make suggestions as the need arose. I undertook the analysis of the aboriginal ceramics, development of a computer coding system for the site, all computer programing, and the authorship of Chapters 1-5.



ABSTRACT

The 1976 excavations at the site of the Cherokee village of Tomotley (40MR5) on the Little Tennessee River exposed 98,595 square feet of surface area. Following the removal of the plowzone with a self-loading pan, 147 features and 18 burials were excavated. A total of 2198 postmolds were exposed and 19 structures were identified. Identification procedures were applied to 14,051 aboriginal ceramic sherds, 6150 lithic artifacts, 11,893 Euro-American items, 4.85 kgms of botanical material, and 13,998 animal bones and shell fragments.

The assemblage of artifacts collected suggests that the site area has been occupied since the Early Archaic (7900-6100 B.C.). The most extensive occupations consisted of a Mississippian I/II (Martin Farm/Hiwassee Island) component represented by at least two structures and the apparent basal portion of one burial mound or cemetery, and a Cherokee occupation which produced the largest amount of material. Ethnohistoric accounts suggest that the historic village may have been founded and occupied by Lower, Middle, or Valley Cherokee refugees between 1751 and 1776. Archaeological evidence (structure form and ceramic types) corroborates this. Because archaeologically the site appears to represent a rather short term occupation with very little feature overlap, it provides evidence of clear patterns in refuse disposal practices and space utilization.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSii
ABSTRACTiv
LIST OF TABLESvii
LIST OF FIGURESviii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1
CHAPTER 2: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND10
    The European Trade System10
    Political Events13
    Ethno-Historic Documentation of Tomotley24
CHAPTER 3: EXCAVATIONS30
    Excavations: 188530
    Excavations: 196731
    Excavations: 1973-7432
    Excavations: 197633
       Excavation techniques: 197636
CHAPTER 4: ARTIFACT IDENTIFICATION49
    Aboriginal Ceramics50
      Ceramic attributes51
      Description of the ceramic assemblage55
    Lithic Artifacts66
    Lithic attributes67
    Botanical Identification82
    Botanical attributes83
    Faunal Identification83
    Faunal attributes84
    Feature Analysis97
      Feature attributes97
      Description of the features99
CHAPTER 5: ASSEMBLAGE ANALYSIS144
    Surface Collections144
      Ceramics145
      Lithics146
      Euro-American items147
      Fauna148
    Tested Units148
      Ceramics149
      Lithics149
      Euro-American items150
      Fauna150
    Village Excavations150
      Structures151
      Feature and burial analysis158
    Discussion167
REFERENCES CITED181
APPENDIX I: ARTIFACT DISTRIBUTIONS191
APPENDIX II: IDENTIFICATION OF EURO-AMERICAN ARTIFACTS
by Linda F. Carnes
204
    Methodology205
    Activities Group207
    Architectural Group211
    Arms Group213
    Clothing Group216
    Furniture Group218
    Kitchen Group219
    Personal Group222
APPENDIX III: BURIAL ANALYSIS
by David Glassman
252
    Form of Disposal, Individuality and Articulation254
    Age and Sex Profiles255
    Position257
    Burial Deposition258
    Body Orientation258
    Burial Descriptions259
APPENDIX IV: ASSEMBLAGE INVENTORY282



LIST OF TABLES

Tablepage
1.1Diagnostic lithic and sherd types for recognized East Tennessee temporal units3
3.1Excavation statistics of each area39
4.1Statistics on shell tempered sherds102
4.2Mean measurements on complete bifacial lithic artifacts103
4.3Tabulation of the botanical material recovered from Tomotley104
4.4Feature characteristics108
4.5List of descriptive statistics for structures112
4.6Cultural associations of each feature and burial113
5.1Frequency of non-finescreen material by provenience169
5.2The ten highest density proveniences for each material type172
5.3Correlations and mean measurements of pit volume and percentage composition173
II.1Compilation of trade goods by period231
II.2List of Group-Class-Element classification for historic trade items along with their frequencies232
II.3Datable ceramic types by period and provenience235
II.4Frequency of glass trade beads236
III.1Summary of the Tomotley burials273
III.2Age and sex composition of the Tomotley Mississippian IV burials275
III.3Mississippian IV burial flexure by sex276
III.4Mississippian IV burial deposition by sex277
III.5Mississippian IV body orientation by sex with reference to cardinal direction279



LIST OF FIGURES

(Unavailable On-Line)

Figurepage
1.1Map of excavated Cherokee sites5
1.2Excavation areas 1973-74 and 19766
1.31979 view of 40MR5 looking west7
1.4DeBrahm's map showing "Little Tomothly"8
1.5Timberlake's 1762 map of the Overhill Country9
3.1Heavy equipment stripping plowzone40
3.2View looking west at Areas 4, 1, and 241
3.3View looking southeast at Area 6 in the foreground and Area 5 in the background41
3.4Map of panned test strips42
3.5Map of Area 143
3.6Map of Area 244
3.7Map of Area 345
3.8Map of Area 446
3.9Map of Area 547
3.10Map of Area 648
4.1Size 1 sherds117
4.2Size 2 sherds118
4.3Size 4 sherds119
4.4Size 8 sherds120
4.5Rimstrip motifs and techniques of application121
4.6Plain jar from F383122
4.7Plain jar from F295122
4.8Complicated stamped jar from F383123
4.9Plain jar from F383123
4.10Complicated stamped jar from F313124
4.11Diamond checked stamped jar from F313124
4.12Plain bowl from F313125
4.13Plain pan from F341125
4.14Plain pan from F341126
4.15Plain pan from F376126
4.16Graph of the breakage pattern of the ceramic vessels127
4.17Stone pipes and a magnetite ground stone object128
4.18Mississippian projectile points129
4.19Calculation of pit opening area and volume130
4.20Feature 302 - cob pit131
4.21Feature 323 - rectangular double-post pit131
4.22Feature 393 - townhouse hearth132
4.23Large Cherokee refuse-filled pit (F383)132
4.24Structure 16133
4.25Structures A) 17 and B) 18134
4.26Structures A) 19 and B) 20135
4.27Structures A) 21 and B) 22136
4.28Structures A) 23 and B) 24137
4.29Structures A) 25 and B) 26138
4.30Structures A) 27 and B) 30139
4.31Structures A) 31 and B) 32140
4.32Structures A) 33 and B) 34141
4.33View looking north at the townhouse (Structure 28) and the pavilion (Structure 29)142
4.34Anglo-American postmold 5908143
5.1Townhouse and summer pavilion174
5.2Postmolds whose depths, d, are: .1 < d < .3 ft175
5.3Postmolds whose depths, d, are: .4 < d < .6 ft176
5.4Frequency distribution of provenience units by percentage composition of ceramics177
5.5Frequency distribution of provenience units by percentage composition of lithics178
5.6Frequency distribution of provenience units by percentage composition of faunal remains179
5.7Frequency distribution of provenience units by percentage composition of Euro-American artifacts180
II.1Activities Group239
II.2Activities Group240
II.3Sleeve from a grinding mill241
II.4Aboriginally modified trade items242
II.5Aboriginally modified trade items243
II.6Architectural Group244
II.7Arms Group245
II.8Arms Group246
II.9Clothing Group247
II.10Kitchen Group248
II.11Kitchen Group249
II.12Personal Group250
II.13Personal Group251
III.1Probable cemetery region in Area 5280