IDENTIFICATION OF EURO-AMERICAN ARTIFACTS
Linda F. Carnes
A total of 11,893 historic artifacts of Euro-American origin were examined from the excavations at Tomotley. The immediate goals of this research were to identify, quantify and measure all historic artifacts recovered during excavations at Tomotley, to classify the artifacts according to a functional scheme set up by South (1977: 95-96) and revised by Newman (1977: 20) and Ford (1979: 42), and to determine (where possible) occupation and deposition dates of relevant historic features and other excavation units.
Only minor modifications were made in utilizing Newman's artifact classification and Ford's format for identification; it should be noted, however, that several artifact classes presented in South's, Ford's and Newman's artifact classification scheme were not represented in the assemblage from Tomotley. This absence of various artifact classes may be a result of limited amounts of historic material available to the Tomotley Cherokees or the limited span of occupation at this site (approximately 26 years as compared to that at Chota-Tanasee which was over 100 years; see Newman 1977: 1).
Four distinctive cultural periods of trade and diplomacy between the Euro-American and the Overhill Cherokee have been described by Newman (1977: 8). The Contact Period ranges from time of European travel into the valley until 1745; the Colonial Period extends from 1746 to 1775; the Revolutionary Period was from 1776 to 1793; and the Federal Period of trade lasted from 1794 to 1819. Based on the ethnohistoric records (see Chapter 2) the major period of occupation for the town of Tomotley was during the Colonial Period, mainly 1750 to 1776. This span of occupation was confirmed by the general lack of artifacts from the Contact, Revolutionary, and Federal periods.
All Euro-American artifacts recovered from the 1967 and 1976 archaeological excavations at Tomotley were examined. This examination included taking measurements, making functional identification, quantifying, and assigning dates (where possible). Of the various collection units at Tomotley, burials and features contained the most Euro-American trade materials. Most (99 percent) artifacts or artifact remnants were identifiable, but only a few items (i.e., ceramics, buttons, gunparts, and a coin) could be accurately dated. A portion of the metal artifacts were cleaned and stabilized by Tom Ford at the Metal Conservation Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee. This process revealed many maker's marks (especially on gunparts) which provided aid in identification of manufacturing dates.
Several archaeological site reports describing comparable period sites were useful in identification of historic artifacts. These references included Ford's (1979) Citico site report, Newman's (1977) Chota-Tanasee site report, Polhemus' (1979) Tellico Blockhouse study, and Stone's (1974) Fort Michilimackinac publication. Other published references of general and specific interest were Early American Ironware (Kauffman 1966), The Age 0f Firearms (Held 1957), A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (Noel Hume 1969), and Classification System for Glass Beads (Kidd and Kidd 1970).
A total of 11,893 Euro-American manufactured artifacts were analyzed. Of this total, 10,643 were beads or bead fragments, and the remaining artifacts were metal, glass, bone, and fabric objects. Some discussion will also be provided regarding the recycled and aboriginally modified artifacts identified from Tomotley.
As previously stated, the identification format was adopted from South's (1977: 95-96) classification system for eighteenth century Colonial-American artifacts. Modification of this format was necessary in order to relate it to Overhill Cherokee context. Caution was exercised in interpretation of function for the identified artifacts, in that aboriginal usage may not have been the same as the intended function for each object.
A description for each artifact by type, group, and class is provided in the following text. The descriptions for each artifact include information (where obtainable) regarding functional group (personal, kitchen, activity, etc.), the condition of each item (corroded, modified, broken, etc.), dating or cultural period assignment (1743 coin, post 1760, or Colonial Period), and the archaeological significance of the artifact type in the overall cultural assemblage from Tomotley.
Table II.1 is a compilation of trade items identified from historic artifacts at Tomotley and which appear on various trade records of the four cultural periods. Perishable items were not included with the exception of food stuffs, presumably represented in the archaeological record by appropriate containers (i.e., rum bottle, snuff box). Table II.2 summarizes the historic artifacts recovered at Tomotley and relates them to South's classification system. In contrast to Newman's modification of this classification system in which trade beads were given a separate group, the present classification format for Tomotley artifacts incorporates trade beads in the "Personal" category for analysis. And in contrast to South's original format in which kaolin pipe remnants appear as a separate category, pipe bowls and stems from Tomotley are also included in the "Personal" functional artifact category.
The Activities Group includes a broad range of objects and is represented in the Tomotley artifact assemblage by such items as construction tools, farm tools, stable related implements (or tack), miscellaneous tools, and general metal resources. Many of these items, specifically tools and tack, were probably obtained from the spoils of Fort Loudoun or possibly trade, in the case of useable metal resources.
An example of artifacts representing this functional group is illustrated in Figures II.1 and II.2. The "construction tool" class included one axe (Feature 383), one hatchet (Feature 415), two planing blades (Feature 383), and three wedge/chisel implements (surface); all made of iron. While axes and hatchets appear in Euro-American trade lists (Newman 1977: 77), planing blades and wedge/chisels do not appear on trade records and were probably obtained from Fort Loudoun refuse.
Farm tools included four hoes of various styles (i.e., a grubbing hoe, a spade-shaped hoe, and two broad hoes). The spade-shaped hoe appears to be a modified broad hoe and exemplifies some recycling of iron tools. According to Newman (1977: 78) hoes were a popular trade item among the Cherokee and were a key "acculturation" implement in transforming warriors to farmers. It is not unlikely, however, that these items were also obtained from the Fort Loudoun stock. Grubbing hoes are considered to be mainly a seventeenth century style item (Noel Hume 1970: 275) and the broad hoe more characteristic of the eighteenth century. This being the case, it might be assumed that Feature 341 (containing one broad hoe) would post date the Contact Period and date to the Colonial Period. Likewise, Feature 383 which contained the remaining three hoes would also date to the Colonial Period.
Tack (or stable gear) is used in this classification system to describe items related to horse furniture (i.e., snaffle bit - Feature 383, stirrup - Feature 313, saddle brace - Feature 383, and horseshoe - Feature 383). Due to the absence of barn related equipment the Stable and Barn category which appears in South's original format was deleted from this classification system.
Newman (1977: 80) indicates that tack did not appear in trade lists until after the 1750s, and that it was probably an expensive trade item, therefore, of limited use among the Cherokee. In any case, these items may also have been taken during the siege of Fort Loudoun and not trade items per se.
Several miscellaneous hardware items including knives, chain fragments, strike-a-light and fire flints, a cooper's tool (Feature 341), and an iron cog from a grinding mill (Feature 376) were recovered during the Tomotley excavation. While coopering tools and chains are not listed in European trade lists of the period, knives were an important object of exchange. Newman (1977: 84) states that sheath and clasp type knives appeared on early (Contact Period) trade lists. Knife identification was based on several attributes: the overall size of the knife elements, the blade and handle shape, and the articulation of the blade and handle elements. Several knives were positively identified as the clasp type, other knife specimens were too fragmentary. An example of a small brass clasp knife is shown in Figure II.2, c. No manufacturer's marks were noted on any of the knife fragments.
Figure II.3 illustrates the iron object recovered from Feature 376 at Tomotley. This artifact was identified as a grinding buhr from a hand-powered corn mill. This hollow, hour-glass shaped sleeve was notched on the interior surface and had two rectangular "cut-outs", presumably for handle attachment and emptying trough. Corn mills were not a trade item for the Overhill Cherokee but were used among the Euro-American inhabitants of the valley, particularly at Fort Loudoun (Carl Kuttruff, personal communication, 1981).
Strike-a-lights and fire flints, described in historical contexts, have been associated with French and British occupations or trade and were considered a valuable commodity (Stone 1974: 189). The fire flints recovered from Tomotley were all grey to black in color and generally spall type construction. While these specimens exhibit use as fire flints, they may have also functioned as regular gunflints. All flints were identified as nonlocal cherts and believed to be of European origin (Larry Kimball, personal communication, 1981).
A metal resource category was established in this artifact classification format to include all functionally indeterminate metal artifacts recovered from the excavation at Tomotley. A total of 572 items make up the category with 96 percent (553) of this group identified as metal "sheet/strip/fragment" pieces.
Two metal rivets were included in this category; one appeared to have been aboriginally modified and its intended function unknown. Also included in the metal resource category are six pieces of iron rods/bars of various lengths and widths. Some evidence of hand-wrought construction was exhibited on two of the larger rods (Feature 383 and Surface). These may have served as levers, but their exact function of the bars and rod pieces remains undetermined.
The wire pieces included under metal resources were composed of brass and silver. Newman (1977: 85) stated that brass wire was a popular trade item among the Cherokee. Large quantities of wire were aboriginally manufactured into ornaments, hair pluckers, rings, and other items.
The category of sheet/strip/fragment metal resources represents a wide range of items including small sheets and strips of brass, copper, silver, and iron. Like the wire, many of these pieces also represent by-products of aboriginally manufactured artifacts. For example, several pieces of sheet silver were identified as fragments of armlets that had been cut into smaller shapes (Figure II.4,a). Also, several strips of sheet brass were recognized as modified kettle scraps (Figure II.5,a). According to Newman (1977: 86) kettle fragments were the primary source of sheet brass. The few pieces of sheet iron were probably fragments of iron kitchenware, i.e., cups, cans, cooking vessels, etc.
Items belonging to this functional group include flat glass and construction fasteners. According to Newman (1977: 32)architectural materials first appear on trade lists during the Colonial Period. Although flat glass was abundant at other Cherokee sites (Chota-Tanasee and Citico), only five fragments were found at Tomotley. It is unlikely that any of the structures at Tomotley had glass windows, and the presence of these few flat glass fragments may represent items procured from Fort Loudoun. Construction fasteners, on the other hand, appear to have been a trade item in demand, and according to Ford (1979: 55) "exhibited a quantitative increase in the archaeological record from the Colonial to the Federal Period". This increase may represent an increase in availability and/or an increase in demand for the item. Flat glass fragments were distinguished from mirror glass by the absence of silver backing.
Nails were identified according to head shape and size, shaft shape, and method of manufacture. Three types of hand wrought nails were identified from the Tomotley sample: rose-head, T-head, and L-head. Each nail type represents a particular construction purpose, i.e., rose-heads were the most common, generally employed as an all-purpose nail; L-heads were used to fasten trim and flooring; and T-head nails, also used on flooring, had a flattened disc head hammered over opposite sides of the shaft (Noel Hume 1969: 252). The presence of all three types and numerous headless nails may represent the availability of all nail types and no specific, intended Euro-American functions for these nails. Some nail shanks terminated in a point, others in a broadened chisel tip, also indicative of specific functions (Figure II.6,a). Spikes and staples of hand wrought manufacture were also recovered at Tomotley. Stone (1974: 235) suggests that some staples may have been used as keepers for door latch bolts. The function of the Tomotley specimens remains undetermined. In addition to the previously mentioned items belonging to the architectural/construction category, fifteen tacks and two eyelets found in Burial 81 are believed to be the remains of a powder horn (Richard Polhemus, personal communication 1981).
Thirty-one pieces of ammunition and fifty-one pieces of gun parts compose the Arms artifact group. Newman (1977: 37) and Ford (1979: 61) have stated that firearms and ammunition were important trade items among the Overhill Cherokee for several reasons. During the Colonial Period of European trade, firearms and ammunition were traded to the Indians to improve their hunting efficiency and thus, increase British trade, as well as to provide weapons for defense against the French and hostile Indians of the neighboring territories.
Ammunition was divided into two size categories: 1) balls - measuring 13 to 16mm diameter and 2) shot - measuring 3 to 5mm in diameter. In addition , numerous fragments of lead scrap (or sprue) and droplets were found on the site which suggests evidence of on-site casting of lead ammunition. Eighteen measurable lead balls were found at Tomotley. Caliber variation ranged from .511 to .590in. Two lead balls with diameters of 9.5mm diameter were identified as pistol (or handgun) ammunition. Hamilton (1969: 127) states that the gun barrel diameter of English trade guns during the eighteenth century ranged from .530 to .590in. Windage (the difference in diameter of the balls and bore diameter of the barrel) was calculated for these lead balls and fell within a .02 to .06in range, making them suitable ammunition for the period of weapon in use during the eighteenth century.
Thirteen undeformed lead shot were recovered from the Tomotley excavations. Diameters ranged from 2 to 6.5mm for these specimens. Caliber ranges were from .078 to .275in. Ford (1979: 64) has suggested that at Citico, balls were associated with "earlier" features and lead shot was found in "later" features, indicating a transition from predominately British-made firearms to American manufactured guns. However, the Tomotley ammunition sample does not appear to represent such a transition but rather, an availability of both types of lead projectiles during the Colonial Period.
Gunflints were also included in the artifact group. Twenty-eight gunflints of the spall and blade variety were recovered from the excavations at Tomotley. Twenty-five (89 percent) specimens were spall flints and three (11 percent) were blade flints. Following Stone's typology (1974: 247), length, width, and thickness measurements and color variations were recorded for each specimen. Measurement averages were 21.3mm length, 37.9mm width, and 8.3mm in thickness (Figure II.7). Color ranged from grey to black, blond to brown. All specimens were examined by Larry Kimball (personal communication, 1981) and identified as nonlocal cherts.
In comparing this assemblage with gunflints from other historic sites the following was observed:
The significance of this comparison lies in the chronological indicator of spall and blade type gunflints, and with the technological factors of gunflint manufacture. Noel Hume (1969: 220) states that during the eighteenth century spall type gunflints "were universally considered superior" to blade types, but by the War of 1812, the blade (or prismatic blade) had replaced the spall variety. In short, the more prevalent the blade variety at a particular site, the later may be the date of that site.
Of the brass and iron gunparts found at Tomotley, several pieces exhibited manufacturer's marks and could be identified as to gun type. Specifically, two brass trigger guard plates (Feature 289, Surface), two brass side plates (Feature 313, Feature 406), and a brass butt plate (Feature 289) were stamped with a broad arrow, "emblem of the King". Several of these stamped pieces were also engraved with "part correlation" marks (typically Roman numerals) and an "H" symbol near the British broad arrow. Similar pieces were found at Citico (Ford 1979: 65) and were identified as belonging to a British Land Pattern military issue musket, commonly referred to as the "Brown Bess" and most popular during the eighteenth century.
An iron swivel (Burial 84), used to attach a leather strap to the gun for carrying over the shoulder, was also identified as that from a Brown Bess musket (Held 1957: 114). Two iron gun screws (Burial 84, Feature 332), used to attach the lock to the stock of the gun, were also of the same type of firearm. One gun barrel fragment (Feature 288) had been aboriginally modified to resemble a chisel-like implement, perhaps to serve a similar function. Another gun barrel fragment was octagonally-shaped in cross-section and had a breech plug adhering to one end, possibly as a result of misfiring (Figure II.8, a). In addition, several gunparts were decorated with incised scroll motif; examples were a lock plate, a butt plate, and a side plate.
This artifact group is divided in four classes; 1) clothing fasteners, 2) sewing implements for the construction and repair of clothing articles, 3) material resources, fabric for clothing construction, and 4) distribution and marketing, represented by such items as bale seals. These items appeared regularly on trade lists (Newman 1977: 40) and were popular commodities among the Overhill Cherokee.
Clothing fasteners included buckles and buttons of brass, iron, and pewter construction. One brass buckle fragment (Feature 399) was a rectangular frame section with decorative incised parallel lines (Figure II.9, c), and dated post-1740 to 1781 (Stone 1974: 35). Another buckle specimen (Feature 341) was intact with a small strip of leather adhering to it, indicating its function as a belt or strap buckle.
Seven buttons were included in the clothing group of artifacts from this site. Button type identification for this limited sample was based on South's (1964) typology. Four buttons of cast pewter construction were not represented in South's button types but identical examples have been recorded at other Overhill Cherokee sites (Chota-Tanasee). Similar style buttons constructed of brass, not pewter, are shown as South's Type 7 button category which dates from 1726 to 1776. One button each representing South's Types 1 (Feature 279), 3 (Feature 341), and 4 (Surface) were also identified from the Tomotley sample. The time range for these button types was also 1726 to 1776 (South 1964: 115). A similar Type 4 button (brass face crimped over wooden back with a single hole), was found at Chota-Tanasee (Newman 1977: 43).
Sewing implements from the Tomotley assemblage included iron awls, brass pins, iron needles, and a scissors fragment (Figure II.9, c). European manufactured awls do not appear on trade lists, but may have been available military issue to the troops at Fort Loudoun and later came into use by the Overhill Cherokee at Tomotley. Straight pins were also not listed as European trade goods but may have arrived in the area as fasteners for bundles of fabric. On the other hand, iron needles appeared regularly on trade lists and were a valuable commodity for exchange among the Cherokee (Newman 1977: 45). Scissors were also a desirable trade item, often listed in trade records.
Seven pieces of identifiable fabric were recovered at Tomotley. The fiber of the fabric could not be accurately determined due to such small and poorly preserved samples but it is believed to be vegetable fiber of coarse thread. The weave pattern appears to be a simple one-over and one-under pattern. The texture of the fabric appears to be a coarse canvas or duck type cloth. It is likely that these fabric scraps found in association with other objects (such as iron nails, in the case of Burial 82) do not represent clothing articles but perhaps, some type of bag or tote sack.
In addition to the identifiable pieces of fabric, six strips or fragments of leather (or hide?) were also recovered. In most instances, the leather strips occurred with ornaments. An example of this was seven brass thimbles (Burial 83) that were suspended from leather strips and possibly used as dangles (Figure II.4, g). The origin of leather pieces may be aboriginal; however, it should be noted that items made from leather (saddles, boots, belts, straps) were trade goods and could have been modified for reuse.
One piece of molded lead was identifiable as a bale seal (Feature 323). Bale seals, small pressed lead disks, were "used to seal and identify the contents of packaged goods" (Stone 1974: 281). Bale seals often exhibit manufacturer's marks and quantity identification. Newman states (1977: 46) that bale seals may have arrived at the Overhill Cherokee towns as packaging around cloth bundles or other dry goods. The Tomotley specimen had been cut into a curved, triangular shape (Figure II.4, f). The manufacturer's mark was too incomplete for positive identification.
A single iron piece of furniture hardware represented this functional artifact group. The artifact was identified as a drawer pull (Feature 279). The broken specimen was rectangular in shape and appeared to be the type of hardware used during the eighteenth century. This furniture hardware was probably retrieved from furniture pieces used at Euro-American sites, such as Fort Loudoun (Carl Kuttruff, personal communication, 1981).
Kitchen related items used in the functional processes of food preparation, serving, and storage comprise the kitchen artifact group. This group included all fragments of European ceramic vessels, glass containers, bottles, and brass kettle parts.
A sample of 36 ceramic sherds were recovered at Tomotley. Identification and type description were correlated to South's ceramic typology (1977: 210). Table II.3 provides an inventory of ceramic types, quantity and cultural periods for all specimens by provenience.
Information obtained from Newman's analysis of ceramic sherds from Chota-Tanasee (1977: 26) proved useful in assigning cultural period dates for the small sample of sherds recovered at Tomotley. In addition, most of the sherds from Tomotley were identical in form and style to those found at Chota-Tanasee, Citico, Tellico Blockhouse, and Fort Loudoun. Newman emphasized the fact that ceramics were not offered as trade items to the Cherokee and that the only sources for European or American ceramics were the colonial period occupation at Fort Loudoun and the Federal period occupation at Tellico Blockhouse.
Distribution of the ceramic sherds verifies this assumption in that the majority of Colonial Period sherds were found in refuse pits scattered throughout the site, while Federal Period and mid-nineteenth century ceramics (listed as 1875 in the following table) were recovered during general surface collection. One exception to this observation was a single pearlware sherd recovered from Feature 284.
Reconstruction of a few ceramic vessels revealed several contemporaneous deposits; Features 389 and 415, Burial 88 and Feature 342, and Features 295 and 383 were all contemporaneous (Figure II.10). The distribution and type of ceramics dating to the Colonial Period suggests that these sherds represent items recovered from the spoils of Fort Loudoun.
Of the total 36 sherds recovered at the site, one piece displayed evidence of aboriginal modification. A broken yellow slip glazed candleholder (Feature 295) exhibited a small hole bored at the base of the shaft (approximately 65mm below the rim). While small holes of this size are common on most candleholders and are often necessary for prying the waxy residues from the bottom of the narrow shaft, this hole had been drilled after the item had been glazed (after manufacture). Furthermore, the diameter of the bored hole measured 7mm, a suitable diameter for reed insertion, suggesting this candleholder was modified for use as a pipebowl (Figure II.5, b).
Fifty-six glass bottle fragments could be identified as a specific bottle type. Thirty fragments of dark olive green glass were identified as mallet-shaped rum bottle fragments and nine dark green pieces of glass were attributed to case gin type of bottles (Figure II.11, a and b). Diagnostic attributes, i.e., lip, rim, shoulder, base, kickup, wall thickness and color, were examined. Thirteen fragments were included in the bottle glass category on the basis of color and wall thickness alone. The type of rum bottle evidenced from the Tomotley fragments has been dated to the 1725 to 1750 period (Noel Hume 1970: 65). Four small glass fragments were recognized as pharmaceutical bottles: two light green neck and shoulder fragments, and two clear shoulder and wall fragments. Reconstruction of these fragments indicated that Features 323 and 326 were contemporaneous. Seven glass container fragments could not be attributed to any specific type of bottle. Classification as containers was based on curvature and wall thickness of the fragments.
The kitchenware class was represented by kettle parts and one iron kettle hook (Figure II.11, c). Five brass kettle remnants and two brass kettle lugs were found at Tomotley. The brass kettle remnants were identified by the presence of patches or rivets. Two brass lugs (Feature 383) were attached to wall pieces. Sheet brass scraps without diagnostic attributes (i.e., patches, rolled rims, lugs, etc.) were placed in the Metal Resources artifact category previously discussed. Observations recorded by Newman (1977: 32) regarding brass kettle parts suggest that brass kettles were a primary source for sheet brass. The significance of this observation is demonstrated by the frequency of brass kettle part occurrences at few Cherokee town sites. Kettle parts were more common at early eighteenth century town sites like Chota-Tanasee and Citico than at later eighteenth century sites such as Tomotley and Mialoquo, reflecting a decrease in the availability of brass kettles and probably some replacement by tinware containers.
This artifact group contained the most abundant variety and number of European trade items recovered at Tomotley. The Personal Group was divided into six classes including 1) figurines, 2) currency, 3) containers for personal gear, 4) jewelry/ornaments, 5) grooming implements, and 6) smoking pipes. The jewelry/ornaments class composed the largest number of artifacts from the entire site and included items such as beads, earrings, sleevelinks, tinklers, bells and necklaces (Figure II.12). In a few instances, artifacts from the Personal Group were datable (see following discussion). Distribution of personal items was widespread with concentrations occurring in burials and refuse pits.
The top portion of a clay figurine (Feature 346) was also included in the personal artifact group. The figurine appeared to be female in characterization and was manufactured in a two-piece mold (Figure II.13, a). According to Noel Hume (1969: 313), female figurines made of pipe clay (and often painted) were popular during the 1740's and 1750's. The headdress and costume style appeared to be eighteenth century French (McCellan 1937). While the origin of this artifact can not be positively determined, it may indicate early French trade in the area.
One intact copper coin was recovered during excavation of Feature 343 (Figure II.13, b). The specimen was a 1743 British half penny (dimensions: 27.5mm diameter, 2mm thick). Similar coins were found at Chota-Tanasee (Newman 1977: 48) and Tellico Blockhouse (Polhemus 1979: 251), all dating to the Colonial Period of European trade.
A small tin snuffbox was found in Burial 82 at Tomotley (Figure II.13, c). It contained five silver earrings, a silver teardrop-shaped brooch and one intact sleevelink. The contents suggest this snuffbox had been utilized by its owner as a trinket box and not as a container for snuff. Snuffboxes do not appear on any trade lists throughout European occupation. However, snuff, as a dry goods product does appear on Federal Period trade records. Cleaning and stabilization of the corrosive elements from the snuffbox was not undertaken in order to preserve the in situ contents. No maker's mark or other identification was observed which would provide a manufacturing date or location.
The class of jewelry/ornaments comprises the largest sample of trade items from Tomotley, with 91 percent (10,827) of the total (11,893). Further, 98 percent (10,647) of the jewelry/ornaments class of artifacts were trade beads.
The bead class for this historic artifact inventory included two rosary beads (of ivory), three wampum beads (of shell), 35 copper beads, and 10,507 glass trade beads.
Two ivory beads (which have been identified as rosary beads) were found in Feature 343 and 389. The specimen recovered from Feature 343 was half of a tubular bead split longitudinally. The example from Feature 389 was a Y-shaped bead which had been perforated along its longest axis. Both beads had been drilled through with a steel bit, bore diameter ranging from 1.0 to 1.5mm. An example similar to the Y-shaped bead was found during excavations at Toqua (40Mr6) (Richard Polhemus, personal communication, 1981).
Three machine-cut and perforated shell beads were identified as wampum beads: two lavender beads came from Feature 295 and one white bead came from Feature 313. Wampum beads have long been recognized as an exchange commodity among North American Indians (Tooker 1978: 166). Aboriginally manufactured wampum beads were traded among the Indian groups prior to European contact. Both the manufacture and the distribution of the beads were observed in 1606 by Lescarbot. Soon after contact, Indians, using iron drills began to produce large amounts of the product for trade to the English and Dutch, who, in turn, distributed them among southern tribes. Tools, manufacturing waste and unfinished beads have been found in quantity among other seventeenth century sites.
Tooker (1978:422) offers further explanation as to the origin of wampum beads:
"To produce wampum in sufficient quantity to satisfy the demand, the Europeans established wampum "factories" on Long Island and in New Jersey. White wampum could be made of a number of species of marine shells, but it was often made from the central column of the whelk (Buccinum undatum). However, the only source of purple (sometimes called black) wampum was the hard-shell or quahog clam (Mercenaria mercenaria). its value to Indians meant that wampum also came to value to whites: in colonial times whites used it as a form of currency much as they used Spanish, Portuguese, French and Dutch coins in addition to English ones."
While the origin of the wampum beads found at Tomotley is not certain, a strong possibility exists for their appearance among the British trade items by the middle of the eighteenth century. Ethnographic documents revealed that the Cherokee term for beads and money is the same word indicating this concept of wampum as currency (Hodge 1907).
By later colonial times imitation glass beads eventually supplanted the shell variety. These glass beads were in some cases facsimilies of the true shell wampum bead, being made in white tubes and in lavender tubes. Also a great variety of brilliantly colored glass beads were traded.
Thirty-five metallic beads were found at Tomotley among the burial goods of Burial 83 (Figure II.12, d). These beads were formed from solid copper tubes that had been cut, rolled, and perforated. Diameter was 4 to 6mm. Ten facetted (WIIc), white glass beads were found in association (at each end) with this copper bead concentration (presumably a necklace, being found in the upper shoulder region of the burial).
Glass beads recovered from the 1967 and 1976 field season at Tomotley totaled 10,607 specimens. Glass beads were found throughout all proveniences: 7937 were from burial contexts, 1899 were from features, and 771 were from postmolds. Following Newman's analysis of the trade beads from Chota-Tanasee (1977: 51), a similar format was used for Tomotley trade bead analysis. This format parallels the familiar Kidd and Kidd (1970) typology in recognition of manufactured type, size, shape, condition of glass, and most colors, (see Table II.4 for frequency of glass trade beads from Tomotley). In Table II.4 under the type category, the numbers following the Roman numerals and small case alphabet letter indicate color descriptions provided by the Kidd and Kidd typology. Types without numbers reflect unidentified or undetermined colors. In a few instances the manufacturing technique (wire wound or tube drawn) was determined but did not match any from Kidd and Kidd typology. Color variations were difficult to determine in some cases where patination was extreme. The condition of the glass, whether opaque or translucent, presented another important attribute for color determination. For example, translucent "black" seed beads were actually a dark rose brown (#61) in color when held up to the light. Only opaque black seed beads were truly black in color. "White" seed beads also varied in color from creamy white to a bone white; all were opaque. One very large wire wound bead was "opalized" and is referred to as "light aqua" in Table II.4. The five facetted beads were manufactured by the ground-facetted method as opposed to the molded-facetted technique. Heavy patination and deterioration of the green (#23), the light gold (#17), and light cherry rose (#7) seed beads was observed which suggests a rapid disintegration of the glass due to these particular coloring agents.
Seed beads were, by far, the most abundant of bead recovered at Tomotley. Seed beads, commonly representing type IIa beads between the 2 to 4mm group, totaled 8534 or 89 percent from the Tomotley collection. This compared favorably with the seed bead ratio (82.4 percent) from the Chota-Tanasee analysis (Newman 1979:52). The most popular colors were white, lamp black or dark rose brown (translucent black), and redwood over green or clear center. Various shades of blue were also abundant.
Newman notes that trade records are inconsistent with information pertaining to glass trade beads and points out that the abundance of a particular bead type may be the result of Cherokee preference and/or greater availability of those beads. Therefore, comparative bead studies from various Overhill Cherokee town sites should provide useful data in establishing a trade bead chronology for this region.
Bells were also included in the jewelry/ornaments class of personal artifacts. Six small brass hawk bells were found at Tomotley. These bells were constructed of sheet brass, brazed to a brass back with a soldered brass eye. Stone (1974: 135) indicated a relative date for hawk bells from 1730 to 1770, thus, corresponding to the Colonial trade period at Tomotley.
Five brass wire bracelets and one modified silver armlet were found at Tomotley. The brass wire bracelets were all C-shaped, similar to other bracelets found at Chota-Tanasee, and Citico town sites. In addition to the brass wire bracelets, a modified fragment of a sheet silver armlet was found (Feature 321). This fragment exhibited a datable maker's mark (Figure II.4, a). It was manufactured in London in 1753 to 1757 (Wyler 1937:131). A bracelet of the same mark and date was found at Chota-Tanasee suggesting some continuity of trade items from town to town.
Twenty silver and pewter brooches of various shapes were found during excavations at Tomotley. All examples were of cast metal construction; a few were complete with moveable tangs. Shapes varied from circular to teardrop to heart design. Sixteen of the brooches were burial accompaniments. Brooches of this style were often used as ornaments in the hair and on clothing (Stone 1974:135).
Two brass chain links and two links cut from sheet silver were recovered from Feature 280. It is likely that these chain fragments were used to suspend jewelry or pendants as personal ornaments.
Three rolled sheet brass tubes were among the personal ornaments recovered in Burial 90. One large brass tube probably functioned as a "hair pipe". Two small brass tubes were connected (hinged) by a piece of leather and may have also served as hair ornaments.
Earrings were represented by 14 whole or partial specimens. All were made with a wire loop soldered to a sheet metal ball and a sheet silver dangle suspended from the ball. The dangles varied in shape from teardrop to conical (Figure II.12, g). Eight of the intact specimens were in burial contents. Similar earrings were found at other Overhill Cherokee town sites.
Five pieces of a coiled brass wire necklace were found in Burial 89. Similar brass wire necklaces were found at Chota-Tanasee and may have been a popular ornament among the Overhill Cherokee.
One small sheet silver ornament was found in Burial 81. The triangular shaped ornament was perforated at the top, possibly for attachment with a leather strip. Dimensions of the ornament were 11 by 12mm.
Sleevelink identification and type was based on South's (1964) button and sleevelink typology. Most of the specimens were constructed of a cast pewter back with a drilled eye and decorated with a "domed" sheet brass face. Four specimens had intact glass face insets (Figure II.12, b). Other decorations included ceramic insets and octagonal, facetted faces.
Seven brass thimbles were found in Burial 83 and seemed to have been modified for use as tinklers or personal jewelry. Similar uses of thimbles as ornaments have been reported at the Guebert Site (Good 1972: 135) in Illinois. Stone (1974: 162) offered a cultural period of 1760 to 1780 for the presence of thimbles on historic sites of this era. Three sizes of thimbles were represented; all specimens had been perforated at the top and suspended from leather strips (Figure II.4, g).
Tinklers constructed of sheet brass and iron were also included in the jewelry/ornaments class. These objects were constructed of trapezoidal or triangular cut pieces of sheet metal rolled into a conical form and suspended from leather strips or hair (Figure II.12, f).
Finger rings and a glass ring stone inset (Feature 418) were recovered from Tomotley. The rings were constructed of silver and brass wire. The hand-cut ring stone was aquamarine in color.
Among the grave goods with Burial 90 at Tomotley was a large piece of rectangular shaped flat glass. This item was identified as a mirror on the basis of thickness and traces of silver backing in the glass (Figure II.13, d). The context of the mirror in burial association and historical documentation of mirrors used as personal ornaments for warriors (Rothrock 1929) suggests that its function was primarily one of personal adornment and not personal grooming. According to Newman (1977: 13), mirrors were trade items during the Colonial and Federal trade periods.
Ten pieces of sheet brass and silver were identified as nonspecific ornaments. Many pieces were cut into geometric shapes (i.e., squares, triangles, and rectangles) and perforated for attachment.
Another class in the personal artifact group included grooming implements. Five fragments of bone combs were found at Tomotley. Although the pieces were extremely fragmentary, they appeared to be double edge, fine toothed combs similar to those found at Chota-Tanasee (Newman 1977: 51) and Fort Michilimackinac (Stone 1974: 139). Combs were listed on trade records after 1750.
Smoking pipes were also included in the personal artifact group. A total of 43 kaolin pipe fragments were recovered at Tomotley during the 1967 and 1976 excavations. Of this total, 17 are bowl fragments, and 26 are pipe stem fragments (Figure II.13, f). No maker's marks were observed on any of the fragments. Only one specimen was found in a burial context (Burial 83), while the remainder came from various refuse pits. Newman (1977: 74) states that kaolin pipes were traded to the Cherokee throughout the eighteenth century. He also suggests that unmarked, plain kaolin pipes were specifically manufactured as trade goods.
Using the pipe stem dating formula developed by Binford (1972), a mean date of 1755.86 was calculated for the Tomotley pipe stem sample. However, with respect to the small sample size of pipe stems recovered from Tomotley and the criticisms of validity of pipe stem dating techniques, caution must be emphasized in the interpretation of the pipe stem date derived for the Tomotley sample.