APPENDIX III

BURIAL ANALYSIS

by

David Glassman

Excavation of the Tomotley site burials revealed 19 interments representing a minimum of 24 individuals. Twelve of these burials are considered to be of Cherokee affiliation from associated burial goods. Six, located in an apparent cemetery concentration in Area 5 (see Figures III.1-III.2) of the site are believed to be of Mississippian I/II origin as suggested by grave goods and style of interment. The remaining assigned interment, Burial 85, after post-excavation analysis revealed no human bone, has been redesignated as Feature 287 and deleted from further burial analyses. Burial number and affiliation have been recorded, continuing the earlier designation sequence (Guthe and Bistline 1978), as Burials 81-90, 96 and 98-99 represent Cherokee individuals; and Burials 91-95 and 97 represent the Mississippian I/II sample. Burial disposal, individuality, position, demography, deposition, and other burial information are presented for each burial. These data were determined from the field notes and recorded according to the form described by Sprague (1968). In may cases, poor preservation had altered the burial pattern and made demographic data indeterminable. Data supported by tenuous evidence have been recorded with a question mark. Table III.1 summarizes the Tomotley site burial data.

Burial preservation was extremely poor with three of the Cherokee (25 percent) and four of the Mississippian I/II burials (66.7 percent) yielding no skeletal nor dental material for laboratory study. Additionally, three of the skeletally represented Cherokee burials were known from only incomplete dentitions. Of the remaining burials, poor preservation has prohibited an extensive metrical analysis of the material. Those bones from which measurements were obtainable represent only two of the excavated 12 Cherokee (16.7 percent) and none of the Mississippian I/II. Skeletal measurements of the two Cherokee individuals, Burials 87 and 98, are presented in their respective burial descriptions.

Skeletal measurements were taken both in the field and the laboratory. Field measurements were verified in the laboratory whenever possible. All measurements are defined in Bass (1971) and were taken with sliding calipers, osteometric board or osteometric tape. Generally, only measurements with both landmarks present were recorded although in rare cases where one landmark was missing but could be reliably estimated, the measurement was taken. These estimated values are designated by an asterisk.

Grave goods were found in association with nine of the 12 Cherokee individuals (72.7 percent). Three of the five Cherokee adults (60 percent) and three of the four Cherokee subadults (75 percent) had associated burial goods. Additionally, three Cherokee burials of indeterminately aged individuals were represented with burial goods. There exists no decisive evidence for the association of burial goods to any of the Mississippian I/II individuals. In on case however, a small Hamilton type point may have been included as a grave good in Burial 95.

Form of Disposal, Individuality and Articulation

All Cherokee interments at the Tomotley site are of, or are suspected to be of, single, simple primary inhumation. However, in at least five cases this was determined on the basis of pit size alone.

Burial individuality and disposal of the Mississippian I/II sample display no consistent pattern. This was evident by the occurrence of both simple and compound and single and multiple inhumations. Burial 91 was a single, compound inhumation. Burial 92 was a mass burial with compound disposal and additionally showed evidence of some cremation and possible defleshing. A minimum number of seven individuals was determined from this burial based on the number of right femora, the most numerous element present in the skeletal sample. Of the Mississippian I/II sample, only Burial 97 represented a simple, primary inhumation of probably one individual. Burials 93-95 are indeterminate as to both individuality and disposal although there is probable evidence to suggest the Burial 93 represents a multiple, secondary inhumation.

The pattern of skeletal articulation was determinable for five of the Cherokee burials (41.7 percent) and in all cases, a condition of complete articulation was suggested. Varying degrees of articulation were noted among the Mississippian I/II burials ranging from the probable complete articulation of Burial 97 to the semiarticulosis in the mass Burial 92 and the probable disarticulation from Burials 93-95 was indeterminable.

Age and Sex Profiles

Age and sex was determined for all Tomotley site burials which provided sufficient material for accurate assessment (Table III.2). Due to the poor preservation at this site, available techniques for the elucidation of sex and age from skeletal remains were limited. Subsequently, only two of the five Cherokee adults (40 percent) could be assigned to a refined age category. Specific age and sex techniques for each burial are provided in the individual burial descriptions (see page 195). In general, age was determined by the individual's condition of dental development, epiphyseal union and suture closure. Sex determination was made on the basis of general robusticity, degree of cranial pronouncement in the areas of muscle attachment, innominate morphology and, when possible, a discriminant analysis of dental elements. The dental discriminate function was found applicable for use on two Tomotley Cherokees. The function, devised from a Toqua (Mississippian) site sample has an accuracy of correct classification greater than 80 percent for the sample from which it was generated (Scott and Parham 1979). Although the function is based on a Mississippian sample, assumption has been made to the extended application and accurate determination of Cherokee individuals. Further technical discussion of age and sex determination can be found in numerous reference texts (eg. Bass 1971; Brothwell 1972; Krogman 1962; Ubelaker 1978).

Both subadults (33.3 percent) and adults (41.6 percent) are represented in the Tomotley Cherokee burials leaving three individuals (25 percent) indeterminate. Only two of the Cherokee adults could be positioned in refined age categories. Both individuals, represented by Burial 87 and 98, have been aged at over 40 years based on the advanced stage of endocranial suture closure and additionally, in Burial 98, the probable appearance of senescent osteoporosis, a condition correlated and indicative of older age (Jaffe 1972).

General age estimates were determinable for nine (81.8 percent) of the minimum number of 11 Mississippian I/II individuals. Of these nine, eight were classified as adult (with one determined 35+ years from sagittal suture closure) and one as subadult. The subadult has been aged between two and five years based on dental development. Sex determination was indeterminable for this entire sample.

Of the five Cherokee adults, four (80 percent) could be sexually differentiated. An equal number of two males and two females was represented. At present, no reliable techniques are available for sex determination of subadults younger than approximately 12 years, at which time the permanent dentition (exclusive of the third molars) has erupted and may be subjected to discriminant function analysis. Additionally, the other morphological characteristics observed in the skull and innominates for sex determination become apparent with the onset of the pubertal spurt beginning at approximately 14 years.

Position

Burial position includes the flexure of the legs, position of the arms and facial direction. Flexure of the legs has been reported for the Cherokee sample as: flexed; semiflexed; extended; or indeterminable and is presented by sex categories in Table III.3. Seven individuals (58.3 percent) were found indeterminate for this burial attribute. A flexed position was the most common form of burial occuring in three cases (25 percent) and was found to occur with both sexes. Only one individual (8.3 percent), a male, was placed in the semiflexed position and one adult of unknown sex, was placed in an extended.

In the positioning of the arms, only three Cherokee individuals (25 percent) could be evaluated. Of these, the adult male of Burial 86 had his arms placed semiflexed on his chest; the adult female of Burial 87 exhibited a flexed position of the arms; and the adult probable female of Burial 98 was positioned with the left arm straight and the right semiflexed.

Facial direction, or head position, has been recorded as facing right, left, up, down or indeterminate. This burial attribute was determinable for five of the 12 Cherokee individuals (41.7 percent). Four of these five (80 percent) were found with heads facing to the left. Both male and female adults and a subadult exhibited this form of burial positioning. The only exception to this burial pattern was found among the subadult of Burial 83 whereby the head was positioned in an upward direction.

Burial position was indeterminate and in most cases inapplicable for the Mississippian I/II sample due to the generally secondary and often redeposited nature of their burial patterning. In one case, Burial 97, the sole individual exhibited flexure of the legs and a head position of facing left.

Burial Deposition

Burial deposition refers to how the body has been placed in the ground. It has been recorded as back, face down, left side, right side or indeterminate and is presented for the Cherokee sample by sex in Table III.4. Seven of the Cherokee individuals (58.3 percent) were indeterminable for this trait. Of the remaining five, the majority (80 percent) were found deposited on their backs and were represented by both male and female. One individual, an adult female, was placed on her right side. Burial deposition could not be ascertained for any of the Cherokee subadults nor any of the Mississippian I/II sample.

Body Orientation

"Body orientation refers to the direction in which the head lies in relation to a line between the skull and the center of the pelvis" (Heizer 1958:65). It has been recorded in terms of cardinal directions and their subdivisions and presented for the Cherokee by sex category in Table III.5. The majority of interments (50 percent) were oriented in a southern or southeastern axis. Subadults and both sexes of adults were found exhibiting this burial pattern. Of the remaining burials: two were oriented to the north; one to the northeast; and three were indeterminable for this burial trait.

Burial Descriptions

Burial 81

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: indeterminate

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: indeterminate

Demography: age - indeterminate sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - pit size suggests the probability of an adult

Preservation: none--no skeletal nor dental material were recovered for laboratory analysis

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - N 15o E container - indeterminate body - possibly to the north


Burial 82

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: probably simple, primary, fleshed inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: single interment

Demography: age - 10 months to 2 years sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - infant age determined from dental development

Preservation: extremely poor-- only two loose deciduous tooth crowns and a small number of enamel fragments were recovered for laboratory analysis

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - probably facing left

Deposition: indeterminate Orientation: grave - indeterminate container - indeterminate body - possibly to the north


Burial 83

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: indeterminate

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: probably single interment

Demography: age - 2 to 6 years sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - young child age determined from dental development

Preservation: extremely poor--only deciduous tooth crowns and a small number of non-diagnostic postcranial fragments were recovered for laboratory analysis

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - facing up?

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - N 20o E container - indeterminate body - to the south

Grave Goods (observations): a copper necklace was placed at the neck. a silver earring was placed near the west end of the necklace. a concentration of white wire wound and black wire wound beads were at the neck and shoulders. further to the north, a concentration of white seed and red seed beads occured. dark organic material was observed under and between these beads suggesting the remains may represent a beaded leather bag. located at the south end of this concentration were seven brass thimbles and two pair of silver earrings. the end of the thimbles were drilled and found to have a knotted leather thong protruding from each. two of the thimbles were tied together.


Burial 84

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: indeterminate

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: probably single interment

Demography: age - indeterminate sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed

Preservation: very poor-- only a probable humerus fragment was recovered for laboratory analysis

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - North to South container - indeterminate body - indeterminate


Burial 86

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: simple primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Individuality: single interment

Demography: age - adult sex - male pathologies - none observed observations - adult age determined from the presence of erupted third molars. sex deter- mination male calculated from dental discriminant function #7 (Scott and Parham 1979). relevant metrical observations for discriminant functions include: buccal-lingual length of the maxillary canine=9.3mm; and mesial- distal length of the maxillary canine=8.7mm.

Preservation: poor--small sample of cranial and postcranial material was recovered for laboratory analysis. material includes twenty teeth.

Articulation: articulated

Position: flexure - flexed arms - semi-flexed, right ulna and radius folded across chest head - facing to the left

Deposition: back and left side

Orientation: grave - Northeast to Southeast container - none body - to the northeast

Grave Goods (observations): grave goods were very sparse. almost all associated grave goods were white seed beads and were located around the head of the individual. they were found lying under the shoulder area, along side of the head and somewhat under the head. bead position suggests the possibility of a necklace.


Burial 87

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: simple primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: single interment

Demography: age - adult (40+ ?) sex - female pathologies - abscess of mandibular alveolus beginning to form in area of left posterior teeth. resorption of mandibular alveolus around right m and probable antemortem loss of that tooth. carries present in: mandibular maxillary p2 i2 c p1 m2 m; c i2 i2 c m2 m3. observations - adult age determined from erupted third molars. endocranial suture closure of the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures suggests an age greater than 45 years. sex determined from innominate and mandibular morphology and discriminant function #3 (Scott and Parham 1979). relevant matrical observations for discriminant function include: buccal- lingual length of the mandibular lateral incisor= 6.5mm; buccal-lingual length of the mandibular canine= 7.6mm; and mesial-distal length of the mandibular canine= 6.8mm. carabelli's trait observed on the maxillary right and left first molars.

Preservation: fair--fragmentary portions of the cranium and postcranium were recovered for laboratory analysis.

Articulation: articulated

Position: flexure - flexed arms - flexed head - facing to the left

Orientation: grave - N 58o W container - indeterminate body - to the southeast

Skeletal measurements (cranial): maximum cranial length................................... 163mm height of mandibular ascending ramus (right)............. 54mm Skeletal measurable (postcranial): left right humerus- maximum length.............................. 295mm femur- maximum length.............................. 442mm anterior - posterior diameter at approximate midshaft................... 28.5mm 28.0mm medio - lateral diameter at approximate midshaft................................ 24.0mm 26.0mm subtrochanteric anterior - posterior dia. .. 24.0mm 25.0mm subtrochanteric medio - lateral diameter.... 30.0mm 30.0mm circumference at approximate midshaft....... 8.5mm 8.8mm tibia- anterior - posterior diameter at nutrient foramen................................. 28.0*mm medio - lateral diameter at nutrient foramen 19.5mm


Burial 88

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: simple primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: none

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: single interment

Demography: age - indeterminate, probably adult sex - indeterminate, probably male pathologies - none observed observations - although neither age nor sex could be determined from the skeletal material, the pit size suggests an adult individual, and the grave goods (i.e. gun flints) suggest the proba- bility of a male.

Preservation: very poor-- only a few fragmentary remains were recovered for laboratory analysis

Articulation: probably articulated

Position: flexure - slightly flexed arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: probably on back with hips angled slightly to left

Orientation: grave - N 60o W container - none body - to southeast

Grave Goods (observations): two major concentrations of artifacts were noted. both were located in what would have been the area of the arms and hands. the first concentration was of two gun flints and a strike a light. it was located in the area of the arms, at the center of the pit and slightly higher elevation (from surface) than the second concentration. the other concen- tration was of two gun flints, these were located in the area of the hands and at the eastern side of the pit. the beads located within the burial did not seem to be in any major type of concentration. they were however, all located below the area of the head and perhaps represent the remains of a necklace.


Burial 89

Affiliation: Mississippian IV Form of Disposal: simple primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: probably single interment

Demography: age - greater than 10 months but less than 2 years

sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - age determined from observations of the mandibular and maxillary deciduous molars

Preservation: very poor--only six deciduous molars were recovered for laboratory analysis

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - N 25o W container - indeterminate body - to the south

Grave Goods (observations): most of the artifacts were recovered near the area of the head. a number of shadow blue beads were generally lined up with one another. some decayed organic material (possibly leather) was located near the head and covered or was intermixed with a copper artifact, brooch and many white and black beads. twenty- three of the black oblong beads appeared to be strung as a necklace.


Burial 90

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: simple primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: single interment

Demography: age - adult sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - adult age determined from erupted third molars. moderate degree of dental attrition was observed.

Preservation: poor--only a few fragmentary cranial and postcranial remains were recovered. recovered material includes 24 teeth of the permanent dentition.

Articulation: probably articulated

Position: flexure - extended arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: on back with legs fully extended

Orientation: grave - N 40o W container - indeterminate body - to the southeast

Grave Goods (observations): at the probable area where the hand would have rested occured a rectangular piece of glass. under this glass was located a bone handled hawk-billed folding knife. a large accumulation of vermillion was located off the area of the other hand. nine brooches were located at the probable chest area. the brooches were made of silver and were attached to a fiberous material. behind the head was an oblong ground stone object. also from the head region were silver and copper tubular beads. of the glass beads, 1721 were located near the lower legs, 147 near the midsection and 37 in the area surrounding the head. this includes all 36 beads which had diameters less than 2.0mm. most of the other beads were recovered from the head area.


Burial 91

Affiliation: Mississippian I/II

Form of Disposal: compound, secondary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: none

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: single, and possibly double, partial with indications of disarticulation

Demography: age - adult sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - adult age determined from general morphology and thickness of long bones

Preservation: very poor--no skeletal nor dental material was recovered

Articulation: indeterminate, but some indications of disarticulation

Position: flexure - possible bundle arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - Northwest to Southeast container - indeterminate body - indeterminate


Burial 92

Affiliation: Mississippian I/II

Form of Disposal: compound, some cremation, possible defleshing

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: partial, mass burial

Demography: age - 6 adults, 1 subadult (2-5 years) sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - minimum number of individuals expressed as the number of right femora is seven. age determined from the morphology of the long bones and dentition. subadult age determined from the condition of enamel completion.

Preservation: fair to poor--all recovered skeletal material fragmentary and partial condition

Articulation: semiarticulosis and disarticulation

Position: inapplicable

Deposition: redeposited mass burial

Orientation: inapplicable


Burial 93

Affiliation: Mississippian I/II

Form of Disposal: probably secondary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: indeterminate

Demography: age - indeterminate sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed

Preservation: very poor--no dental nor skeletal material was recovered

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - East to West container - indeterminate body - indeterminate


Burial 94

Affiliation: Mississippian I/II

Form of Disposal: indeterminate

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: indeterminate

Demography: age - indeterminate sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed

Preservation: very poor--no skeletal not dental material was recovered for laboratory analysis. burial represented by dental fragments only.

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - East to West container - indeterminate body - indeterminate


Burial 95

Affiliation: Mississippian I/II

Form of Disposal: indeterminate

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: indeterminate

Demography: age - indeterminate sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed

Preservation: very poor-noskeletal nor dental material was recovered. burial represented by two fragmentary long bones.

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - N 50o W container - indeterminate body - indeterminate


Burial 96

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: indeterminate

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Demography: age - indeterminate sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed

Preservation: very poor--no skeletal nor dental material was recovered. burial represented by tooth fragment.

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - East to West container - indeterminate body - indeterminate


Burial 97

Affiliation: Mississippian I/II

Form of Disposal: probably primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate, probably fleshed

Individuality: probably single

Demography: age - adult sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - adult age determined from morphology of the long bones. age assessment made in the field.

Preservation: poor--only a fragment of a tibia shaft and a portion of the left temporal were recovered.

Articulation: probably articulated

Position: flexure - flexed arms - indeterminate head - facing left

Deposition: right side

Orientation: grave - N 30o W container - indeterminate body - to the southwest


Burial 98

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: none

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: single interment

Demography: age - adult (40+ ?) sex - female? pathologies - antemortem loss of the third and second mandibular right and left molars. abscess and alveolar resorption at maxillary first molar. mandibular left first molar is completely carrius. probable appearance of senescent osteoporosis in the area of lambda at the junction of parietals and occipital. observations - age determined from the morphology of the long bones and endocranial suture closure. the probable female sex was determined from the gracility of the long bones and cranium.

Preservation: poor--all recovered material was partial and in fragmentary form

Articulation: articulated

Position: flexure - flexed arms - left straight at side; right semi-flexed at chest head - facing left

Deposition: on back

Orientation: grave - North to South container - indeterminate body - to the south

Skeletal measurements (cranial): mandibular body thickness................................ 10mm bigonial breath.......................................... 79mm height of ascending ramus................................ 72mm minimum breadth of ascending ramus (left)................ 34mm height of mandibular symphysis........................... 33mm

Skeletal measurements (postcranial): left right femur- maximum length.............................. 445mm anterior-posterior diameter at midshaft..... 30.0*mm 30.5mm medio-lateral diameter at midshaft.......... 25.5*mm 23.0mm subtrochanteric anterior-posterior dia...... 27.0mm 28.0mm subtrochanteric medio-lateral diameter...... 35.0mm 34.0mm circumference at midshaft................... 8.8mm 8.7mm tibia- anterior-posterior diameter at nutrient foramen................................. 31.0mm medio-lateral diameter at nutrient foramen................................. 25.0mm


Burial 99

Affiliation: Mississippian IV

Form of Disposal: simple, probably primary inhumation

Vehicle of Disposal: indeterminate

Body Preparation: indeterminate

Individuality: probably single

Demography: age - child, 3-7 years sex - indeterminate pathologies - none observed observations - age determined from completeness of enamel on first molars and small size of burial pit.

Preservation: very poor--only two teeth were recovered for laboratory analysis

Articulation: indeterminate

Position: flexure - indeterminate arms - indeterminate head - indeterminate

Deposition: indeterminate

Orientation: grave - N 30o W container - indeterminate body - indeterminate