Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Communication
Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne


Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne
Course Information and Policies
Steven Alan Carr, PhD.

recent changes highlighted in yellow.

This is a binding. comprehensive document that governs any course taught by me.  It spells out what I expect from you, and what you can expect from me. By staying enrolled in the course after the end of late registration and drop/add, you signify your agreement to remain accountable for all information and policies covered in this document and in the course syllabus. If you object to any of the terms outlined in either this document or the syllabus, you must appeal to the instructor before the end of late registration and drop/add. Appeals raised after this date will receive very limited consideration.

Because this is a comprehensive document, it covers both online and face-to-face interactions. For certain classes, some policies may be more relevant than others. Where a discrepancy exists between this document and the syllabus, the syllabus will take precedence. Where a discrepancy exists between your rights and responsibilities in this class, and IPFW policies and regulations or state and federal laws, your rights and responsibilities as an IPFW student and under Indiana and federal law will take precedence.

These policies are subject to change. If there is a policy change, you will be provided with reasonable advance notice and you will have the opportunity to negotiate a mutually agreed upon alternative.

Course Sanctions

Only the instructor can issue a course sanction. A course sanction is a grade-based penalty that occurs when a basic pre-condition of the course is not met. It jeopardizes the final course grade, because it is assessed independently from submitted work and thus it can override both an earned grade as well as the final grade before that grade is earned. If a sanction is issued early enough, the instructor may urge the student to drop the course or risk earning a failing course grade. Although a course sanction itself does not ensure a failing course grade, it may result in one, with or without prior notification, at any time during the session or semester. A student has the right to appeal any course sanction through the normal IPFW Grade Appeals process.

You can avoid a sanction early in the course by meeting the following pre-conditions:

  • By the end of the first week of class, attend at least one (1) class session.
  • Submit the student agreement as soon as it is available (typically before the second week of class), indicating that you have read, understood, and agreed to the terms set forth in the course policies and the course syllabus.
  • Observe the three-fifths rule: you must attend in their entirety three (3) or more class meetings within a movable window of five (5) regularly scheduled consecutive class meetings. IMPORTANT: the three-fifths rule is progressive and not cumulative. Missing three (3) or more out of five (5) consecutively scheduled class meetings may result in a sanction, even if you cumulatively attend ten (10) out of sixteen (16) classes. This rule applies only to regularly scheduled classes, and exempts classes not required or canceled due to campus closings or instructor absence.

For the purposes of determining a sanction, attendance means coming on time, returning promptly from any in-class breaks, and staying for the full remainder of a regularly scheduled class meeting unless instructed otherwise. In addition, in some instances attendance also may mean timely submission of a written assignment. Sanctions for attendance may include but are not limited to any of the following: a lowered or failing grade for the final grade or any component of the final grade, including the participation grade or any assignments affected by one or more absences; or, less likely, a requirement to complete an additional assignment, or repeat or resubmit an assignment.

A sanction makes no distinction between excused and unexcused absences. You are welcome but not required to notify the instructor as well in advance of when or as soon after an absence or lateness occurs. In some instances, the sanction also may impose certain conditions for the remainder of the course, such as on-time attendance for all future scheduled class meetings. If these conditions are not met, a grade-based sanction will take effect.

All work submitted at any time during the semester or session is expected to represent the highest standards of academic conduct. If an instance of academic misconduct is discovered before the final two (2) weeks of class, a sanction may include a lowered or failing grade for the assignment; an opportunity to redo the assignment; and/or a lowered or failing grade for the course. For any work submitted during the final two (2) weeks of class found connected to an act of plagiarism or other form of academic dishonesty, the sanction will be limited to a lowered or failing grade for the assignment and/or a lowered or failing grade for the course.

Before a sanction is issued, the instructor may request an informal conference within ten (10) business days of an incident involving academic misconduct or some other occurrence. This conference may take place in person or by telephone. Additional sanctions and/or a failing grade may result under the following circumstances: failure to respond within ten (10) business days to instructor-initiated communication; failure to attend a scheduled meeting set by the instructor to discuss issues related to misconduct or class performance; or an act of student personal misconduct subject to disciplinary action, as specified in the IPFW Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct, where a student fails to comply with directions given by the instructor acting in the capacity as an IPFW official.

Before a sanction is issued, the instructor will advise the student of the reason for the sanction, and present any information that serves as the basis for the sanction. After imposing a sanction, the instructor will report the matter in writing as well as any steps taken to the student. If the sanction involves academic misconduct, the student's department chair, school dean, and dean of students also will receive a copy of this report.

Exceptions will be considered on a case-by-case basis only when there is a serious crisis, health-related emergency, or other legitimate mitigating circumstance. Requests for exceptions before a series of absences, missed deadlines, or before the instructor issues a sanction will receive greater consideration than those made after the fact. The greater the advance notification, the more flexibility there will be to negotiate a mutually agreed upon solution. Should you have any questions or special circumstances, the best policy almost always is to initiate ongoing communication with the instructor as early as possible in the semester or session.

Attendance, Participation, and Late Policies

  • Complete the online student agreement as soon as it is available.  Completing the online student agreement means that have read the course policies, the course syllabus, and that you agree to the terms of the course.  Failure to complete this agreement by the end of the second week of class will block your access to this course via Blackboard and may result in an automatic F for the course.
  • Attend class and/or log on to Blackboard frequently. Although I take attendance, I do not deduct points for being absent or for being late.  If you need to occasionally miss a class or if you are temporarily unable to access Blackboard, you do not need to tell me when or for what reason. However, I do grade participation in class and/or via Blackboard.  While absences are not docked for points, each day missed is one less opportunity that I have, even if there is a legitimate excuse, to assess your participation.  Three (3) or more consecutive absences within a movable window of five (5) scheduled class meetings may result in a course sanction.  Note: Blackboard tracks the frequency, duration, and other activity while a student is logged in.  I reserve the right to use this information as one index to assess student work.  If IPFW is open and Blackboard is operational, but a circumstance involves inclement weather or instructor illness, the instructor will make a decision whether to hold class or conduct other activities. If class is held, no special notice will be given. Class may still meet, even if the instructor is not present. If class is canceled, notices will be posted on Blackboard and outside the classroom as soon as possible. If class is held and you are unable to attend because of a non-trivial issue involving health or personal safety, contact me as soon as possible and I will negotiate a reasonable accommodation for your absence upon your return.
  • Do not forfeit in-class assignments.  In order to earn a grade on an in-class assignment, you need to have worked on that assignment in class. Almost all collaborative assignments involve some work done in class. If you miss all or any part of three (3) or more classes within a movable window of five (5) consecutive class meetings, you may foreit your grade for these assignments, even if you made a substantial contribution to a group effort. Any forfeiture of a grade in this instance may occur in addition to a grade-imposed sanction.
  • Perform at a level appropriate to your class standing.  Different classes target different populations of students. If you are enrolled in a dual-level undergraduate and graduate class, everyone is expected to do graduate-level work, regardless of class standing. If you are a graduate student in a graduate-level class, you will be expected to take on a leadership role in the class. This does not mean doing more work than undergraduate students. It means performing at your level as a graduate student to make the class go well.
  • Perform at a level appropriate to the class for which you are registered.  Dual-level undergraduate and graduate classes require the same level of work from all students registered for that class. If you are registered for a class that meets regularly, attend class.  If you are registered for an Internet class that meets asynchronously, check the Internet daily.  Students enrolled in a face-to-face class are welcome to go beyond the minimum requirements of participating online.  Similarly, students enrolled in an Internet class are welcome to attend face-to-face meetings for another section of the class.  In neither case, however, will these supplementary activities be considered a substitute for the minimum requirements of the course for which one has registered.  Under no circumstances will an Internet option be offered for a face-to-face class.  In other words, if you are enrolled in a face-to-face class and you want to take the class via the Internet, you must drop the face-to-face class and, space permitting, enroll in the Internet section before the last day of late registration and drop/add.
  • Participate frequently. I do grade both the quantity and quality of your participation. Whether in person or online, you need to be both present and active in class. Obviously, regular, on-time attendance for the entire class meeting is necessary for you to have as many opportunities to participate as possible. However, simply attending class is only a prerequisite to participation. If you attend every class but you never participate in any discussion or activity, I will assess you on your participation, not on your attendance. Similarly, quantity is only a prerequisite to quality. If you frequently participate, but the participation is of a low quality, you will be assessed on the basis of that quality.
  • Be resourceful. You are responsible for all material covered in class, regardless of whether you are absent, late, or that you need to leave early. To find out what you missed, contact a classmate first. Regularly check the course website for additional instructions.  In most cases, handouts and returned materials will be available online.  If you are unable to access materials online, contact a classmate and see if that person can assist you in emailing or printing off these materials. Then come to me with specific questions that seek clarification. If I do bring handouts and returned materials to class, they will be distributed only once. If you are absent when materials are distributed, contact a fellow class member to get a copy. If you are absent on a day when I return graded assignments, then you must arrange to meet me in my office in person. Note: Federal law prohibits leaving graded work in an unsecured location, or giving it to anyone other than the student who submitted it.
  • Take quizzes and exams at the scheduled date and time. If required, weekly quizzes will be available no later than 24 hours before they are due.  Quizzes typically are due before class on the date of an assigned reading.  If assigned, the midterm and final exam will be available no later than 48 hours before they are due.  Exams must be taken on the date and time listed in the course syllabus and in the IPFW Schedule of Classes. If you miss or are absent from a scheduled exam, you may earn a failing grade. In no case will any exam be administered either one week before its scheduled date, or at any time after that date.
  • Meet deadlines for assigned work. In most cases, there is no grade penalty for late work. However, late assignments will receive only a grade and may forfeit your opportunity to revise, resubmit and get feedback on that assignment.
  • Do not assume that you will get an incomplete. Incompletes are given only for assignments already started, but where you are unable to complete them because of an emergency legitimately beyond your control.  In other words, if you do ask for an incomplete, be prepared to show evidence that you have already completed major portions of your coursework for this class.  Under no circumstances can a student do additional work after final grades have been submitted to raise his or her final grade.

Communication Outside of Class

  • Make an effort to meet during office hours. Office hours typically begin in the first week of classes and end in the week prior to exams, excluding designated holidays and breaks. Office hours are conducted on a first come, first served basis – no appointments will be made during this time. I happily meet by appointment outside of office hours, but since I make every effort to protect office hours from other meetings and activities, my preference is to meet during these hours. Due to other commitments as a faculty member, I often am out of my office, and my schedule outside of office hours has little flexibility. If you stop by my office unannounced, I may not be there, or if I am there, I may ask you to schedule another time to meet. Sometimes things come up that require my immediate attention. If you stop by my office during office hours or during a meeting time mutually agreed upon in advance and I am unable to meet with you, I will make every effort to reschedule our meeting at your earliest convenience.
  • Be flexible. If you need to meet outside of office hours, please be as flexible as possible. If we cannot find a mutually agreed upon time, consider alternative ways for us to meet, such as a scheduled telephone call or an online chat. You may be asked to schedule a second appointment if our meeting takes longer than 20 minutes.
  • We do not have a scheduled appointment until I write it down in my calendar. If we verbally agree to meet outside of class, I may still ask you to email me a written confirmation of our appointment. You must allow a reasonable amount of time between when you request an appointment, and when we meet.  Please note that I do not receive your email until I can open it on my computer.
  • Show up for a scheduled appointment with me. If you cancel an appointment less than 24 hours before our scheduled meeting time, or you do not show up for a scheduled meeting time, and there is no apparent emergency beyond your control, do not expect to schedule another appointment with me for the remainder of the semester. Of course, you may meet with me during office hours on a first come, first served basis.
  • Plan to meet during the scheduled session or semester. No meetings will be scheduled or rescheduled during or after finals week. You may schedule a meeting when the next regular semester begins.
  • I do not receive your email or voicemail message until I open it.  I use regularly scheduled office hours to respond to email and voicemail.  If I do not respond, assume that I have not yet received your message, that I am in a meeting, or that I am on the phone. Due to the large volume of messages I receive, I cannot guarantee that I will respond to every one received. If you ask a question that has already been covered in this document, in the syllabus, or on Blackboard, do not expect a response. If you have not heard from me after a few days, and an issue has not been resolved, please try to contact me again.  I do not memorize my emails or voicemails, so when I am in the classroom and out of my office, it is pointless to ask me if I received your message.  I can check to see whether I have received your email or voicemail when I am in my office and near my computer and phone.  If you doubt that I have received your message, consider resending it.
  • Consider the mode of communication. I try to spend no more than 15 minutes responding to each email. Extremely broad, general, complex, or multiple questions might be better handled in a phone call or face-to-face meeting outside of class. Make sure your message clearly identifies your first name, last name, and any pertinent contact information. Otherwise, I cannot identify you from your message alone, and I cannot guarantee a timely response.
  • Set up, check, and use your IPFW student email account.  Email is now the official form of communication with all students enrolled at IPFW.  All emails initiated by me will be sent to your IPFW student email address.  For more information about the features of your IPFW student email account, including automatic forwarding of your email to a different address, see the ITS document Student E-Mail at IPFW.  Failure to respond to an email from me within a reasonable amount of time may result in a course sanction.
  • Send your email from the account you use most frequently check for messages. Most email programs allow you to enter an address in the FROM: field of your message. I can only guarantee that I will reply to the address listed in the FROM: field of the email that you send, even if you ask for me to use a different email address in the body of your message. Do not send an email from another email account unless you want me to reply to that account.
  • Include the correct course prefix and number in the subject field of your message. For example: [COM xxx]. This will improve your chances of getting a timely response.

Assignments, Exams, and Feedback

  • As soon as you know you will need an accommodation, ask for one.  I make every effort to accommodate reasonable requests.  There are many different learning styles, working styles, and other circumstances.  If there’s something that can be done to help you achieve success in the class, it is your responsibility to initiate a discussion with me as early as possible so that we can work out a mutually agreed upon accommodation.  The sooner you ask for an accommodation, the more likely we mutually will be able to agree upon a reasonable solution. Though not required, you also are encouraged to contact the Director of Services for Students with Disabilities (Walb 113, 481-6658) as needed. Once the Director has provided you with a letter attesting to your needs for modification, bring the letter to me. For more information please visit the web site for SSD at http://www.ipfw.edu/ssd/.
  • Learn to troubleshoot technical problems.  You are responsible for locating reliable computers installed with up-to-date software and high-speed Internet access to complete assignments. If you experience a problem with a file or with Blackboard, please try to troubleshoot before giving up or contacting the instructor.  If Blackboard starts to behave erratically, try quitting and reopening your Internet browser and then log back in to Blackboard.  If you can’t open a file (like a PDF) from within Blackboard, see if you can download the file to your desktop first and then open it using the file’s native application.  If the problem persists, try restarting your computer.  If the error still persists, see if you can duplicate the problem on a different computer.  If the problem still persists, consult the Information and Technology Services (ITS) Helpdesk webpage for resources in helping you to troubleshoot and to provide a detailed description of your problem.  If you plan to complete your assignments at home, make sure you have a reliable backup plan in case your Internet service goes down or your computer crashes.  Most public libraries offer free high-speed Internet access, and a list of campus computer labs available to registered students is available through ITS.
  • Always keep both a disk backup and printed hard copy before you submit your work. You are responsible for doing this. If you enter an assignment into a text box on the web, I recommend that you first prepare that assignment in a word processor, and then copy and paste it into the box. I do not download or print off your work for you. Failure to maintain adequate backups of your work may result in a failing grade, even if you submitted an assignment by a deadline. For example, if you submitted your work via Blackboard, Blackboard crashes and your work is lost, you will be expected to present a backup of your work on demand to receive credit for that work
  • Check to make sure you submitted your assignment properly. It is your responsibility to ensure that you have submitted the correct version of an assignment. Attaching an incorrect draft or a blank document may result in an automatic zero (0) for the assignment, and even may result in a failing grade for the course. Once you have submitted an assignment, return to where you have submitted it, perform any necessary downloads of attachments, and make sure that is what you intend for submission. The instructor does not check this for you.
  • Proofread your work. Regardless of how you submit your work - whether as an email, discussion post, or file attachment - I expect all assignments to consist of complete, grammatically correct sentences, clearly formatted as paragraphs and free from typos, spelling and grammatical errors.  I do not require a specific stylesheet, but whatever stylesheet you choose, be consistent.  Failure to meet these basic standards may result in a failing grade. If I ask you to redo an assignment or visit the Writing Center and you do not do so within a reasonable timeframe, the assignment may result in a failing grade.
  • Your work is submitted once I can open it on my computer. If you email your work, I have not received your message until I can open it.  I can open most file formats, but if you send or upload your work as a file attachment, I can only guarantee that I will be able to open a Microsoft Word-compatible format.  In other words, if you will be using anything other than Microsoft Word, check with me first before assuming that I will be able to open what you send me.  If you use an incorrect email address to send an assignment, you may receive a failing grade.  If you are instructed to submit your work using a particular area or tool of Blackboard, and you submit your work in some other area in or outside of Blackboard, you may receive a failing grade.  If you publish your work in your webspace, I have not received your assignment until I can open it in a web browser. I cannot login to your webspace. If you post your work in your webspace, or any place outside of Blackboard, you must submit an accurate, working hyperlink that you have tested and that you know will work on another computer. You are responsible for testing this and any other links related to an assignment. Since I cannot login to your webspace, sending an incorrect link means that you have failed to submit your work, and may result in a failing grade. Unless otherwise announced, the last day to submit work for credit will be the last class meeting before final exam week. I cannot guarantee that you will receive credit for work after that date.  You do have the option of submitting a hard copy backup in addition to submitting your work online.
  • Expect, on average, a two-week turnaround for feedback. This time frame may be more or less, depending on the complexity and quantity of assignments submitted. I cannot guarantee written feedback for any assignment submitted during the week before final exams. Feedback for final projects and the final exam will be provided only upon request, and will be available in the following full semester.
  • Revise and resubmit eligible assignments. Under certain circumstances for quizzes and assignments due before the final week of class, you may automatically revise and resubmit your work for full credit, provided that you met an initial due date and scored at least 60% (D or better). Every time you resubmit an assignment, you must notify me in writing with an inventory of each assignment that you have revised. No resubmissions or retakes will be scheduled during the week prior to the final exam.
  • Address problems with quizzes early in the semester.  If you do poorly on a quiz before the midterm, you can negotiate with the instructor to retake it, even if you scored less than 60%. However, no quiz will be reopened after the midterm, so if there are problems, you must address them early in the semester. To request that a quiz get reopened, you must meet in person with the instructor, where you must show evidence of preparation for the quiz. Highlighted readings do not constitute evidence. Instead, you must present your notes, either in handwritten or typewritten format, before the quiz gets reopened. By the final class meeting, you are expected to know the course material. Therefore, you will not be able to access previous quizzes after the final class meeting, even if there is a final exam scheduled the following week.
  • Work within course parameters.  I do not assign extra credit or makeup work.  In most cases, by working through the existing grading structure of the course, you can improve your overall grade through taking advantage of the revise and resubmit policy, as well as demonstrating consistent and ongoing efforts to improve class participation.

Grades and Grading

  • You can disagree with me and still earn an A in the course. However, simply agreeing or disagreeing with me does not guarantee an A. I grade on evidence of accomplishment, not on effort.
  • Check final grades via my.ipfw.edu. I do not send out grades via email or the mail.
  • Hone your decision-making and problem-solving skills. Very few problems have one solution, and most solutions are rarely simple. Instructions for assignments will be deliberately vague. Less important than being correct is how you go about making decisions and solving problems with little or even incorrect information.
  • Be resourceful.  Don’t be afraid to ask me for help, but keep in mind that part of how you are evaluated is based on how well you are able to gather information and make judgments in a way that shows you can make up your mind without needing micro-management.
  • Make an informed argument. Whether for in-class participation, presentations, or for written assignments, I typically base a grade on how well you make and then develop an argument. To make an argument, you must demonstrate that you have an informed opinion. Having just an opinion is not enough to earn a passing grade. I use the following criteria to evaluate how well informed you are: are you willing to take risks in forming an unusual or particularly creative argument? Do you attempt to engage other opinions, such as those of your classmates, assigned readings, or information you have gathered on your own? Can you support your opinion through the use of specific evidence that you have clearly and precisely explained and synthesized? Can you develop an argument in a way that is logically sound?
  • Show that you are taking course material seriously. When watching a clip from film or television, for example, take precise notes on any significant patterns that occur visually, in the soundtrack, or in the narrative.  For assigned readings, you should make a note of any significant or meaningful points raised in the text, using quotations where appropriate.  Failure to meet minimum standards for engaging with course material may result in a failing grade.  While you are encouraged to engage in course material through thoughtful questioning, inappropriate or disruptive behavior that clearly indicates a failure to take course material seriously will be treated as a violation of Student Conduct and may result in disciplinary action.
  • Consider the quality of both your information and how you gathered it. For a research paper, I look at the diversity and kind of sources used. Peer-reviewed academic journal articles must meet a higher standard for publication than periodical articles published in popular magazines and newspapers. Thus, a paper that relies only on articles from one newspaper, or only on articles published in popular magazines likely will earn a lower grade than a paper that relies upon books and essays in scholarly journals.

Student and Scholarly Conduct

  • Read the IPFW Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct. It is your responsibility to become familiar with this document.
  • Uphold the Student Honors Code.  The Honors Code asks that as a member of the academic community, you promise to be truthful and maintain the highest standards of academic and personal honesty by not cheating, intentionally plagiarizing, or tolerating these behaviors in others.  An important principle of the Honors Code is that there is only one person who best can police your own behavior and that of your peers: you.
  • Know what plagiarism is, and how to avoid committing it. According to the Undergraduate Bulletin, plagiarism occurs “when the work of someone else is offered as one’s own.  The language or ideas thus taken from another may range from . . . isolated sentences . . . to entire articles.”  Sources for plagiarism can include printed materials, web pages, or the work of other students. When plagiarism occurs, whether or not you intended to commit plagiarism is irrelevant.  Intentional or not, even the appearance of plagiarism will be treated as a form of academic misconduct. All acts of academic misconduct will result in a failing grade for that assignment. In addition, letters will be sent to the chair of your department, the dean or director of your school or division, and the dean of students notifying them that an act of misconduct has occurred. You may even receive a failing grade for the course and dismissal from the University.
  • Uphold a respectful environment appropriate to learning and encouraging the free flow of ideas. Please limit side conversations during class, and refrain from online chitchat on Blackboard. Mute cell phones before class starts. If something distracts me during class or online, the activity is disruptive. Repeated disruptions will be treated as a violation of the Student Code and may result in disciplinary action. Respectful disagreements are not disruptive.
  • Understand that learning is a voluntary act. Try to keep an open mind when encountering challenging or difficult material; getting offended or angry sometimes is part of the larger process of learning. However, if you find a discussion or screening so repellent that you cannot keep an open mind, I never will force this material on you.  If you feel compelled to leave, feel free to go into the hallway and get a drink of water or walk away from your computer. After the incident and outside of classtime, I happily will engage in a frank discussion on why a particular screening or discussion provoked the response that it did.  If you remain, understand that you stayed because of a choice that you made and not because anyone forced you to make that choice.
  • Make being a student a priority. Everyone has other commitments, like work and family. You will need to balance your commitments so that class time and study time are at least as important as these other commitments.  You are assessed on the basis of how well you perform in and outside of class over time, not on your personal circumstances.  The traditional “gold standard” for the amount of time you need to spend outside of class is 2 hours of preparation per week for every credit hour earned.  For a 3 credit hour course taught during fall or spring semester, expected preparation outside of class would be on average 6 hours per week, including reading and rereading material and accessing Blackboard.  That amount will vary up or down according to a number of factors, including how skilled you are at being a student, how efficiently you manage your study time, and when assignments, tests, and other activities are due.  Be especially careful in Internet and summer courses, where the absence of face-to-face meetings or highly compressed schedules easily gives the mistaken impression that these classes are less demanding.  Since these classes deliver the equivalent of a 16 week course during a regular semester, they demand the same level of quality and commitment of that 16 week course.  Summer courses, which meet 3 days a week for about 2 hours each day, expect you to prepare 12 hours per week outside of class (3 days x 4 hours each day).  Although flexible in terms of when you complete the work, an Internet course taught during summer will require, on average, a total commitment of around 18 hours per week, the equivalent of a summer course that meets 6 hours per week (3 days a week for 2 hours each day) plus 12 hours of studying and preparation.
  • Take proactive ownership of the class. If you do not understand a reading, write down a list of questions before class, and then raise those questions in class. If you do not find class discussion helpful or focused enough, make this known in class discussion and model for the rest of us an example of how you would like to see the discussion go. I do not provide study guides for the midterm and final exams. However, I encourage you to organize study sessions and materials outside of the scheduled class meeting time. To this end, the instructor will make webspace available to post student-generated study guides and other helpful materials. Evidence of how you have taken or not taken ownership of the class will influence your participation grade.

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