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Thesearesomefrequent(andtypical)errorsmanyofyouhavemadeinyourcompositionsduringthefirsthalfofthesemester.  Pleasestudythemandtrytoavoidtheminthefuture.  Theywillverylikelyappearonthetest(s)lateroninthesemester.

"Toenter"or"goin"=entraren(unlugar)    Notethattheprepositionenisrequiredifentrarisusedwithanoun    indicatingaplace:
        Elmatadorentróenelredondel.  Thematadorenteredthering.

"Toleave"or"togooutof"=salirde(unlugar)    Whenusingsaliras"togooutof"aplace,theprepositiondemustbe    usedinfrontoftheplace:
        Ellasaliódelafiesta.          Shelefttheparty.

"After"and"before"usedasadverbs/prepositions/conjunctions    Antes="before"(adverb)inthesenseof"beforehand"or"first"or
    "earlier".  Similarly,despuésmeans"after"(adverb)or"afterwards"or
    "later":
        Yosalíalauna;élsalióantes.  Ileftat1:00;heleftbefore.
        Túsalistedespués,¿verdad?      Youleftafterwards,right?

    Antesdeisusedasthepreposition"before",andmustbefollowedbya    prepositionalobject(anoun,pronoun,orinfinitive).  Thesameapplies    todespuésde.  Botharenomallyusedinreferencetotime(physical    postionisordinarilyexpressedbyotherprepositions).
        Yolleguéantesdeti.            Iarrivedbeforeyou.
        Carmenvinodespuésdeunrato.    Carmencameafterawhile.
        Nosfuimosdespuésdecenar.      Weleftaftereatingsupper.

    Antesqueorantesdeque(thedeisoptional)isusedasaconjunction;    thatis,theyarefollowedbyaclausecontainingaconjugatedverb(in    thesubjunctive).  Despuésque/Despuésdequearelikewiseadverbial    conjunctions(butarefollowedbytheindicativeorsubjunctivedepending    onwhethertheactionisananticipatedoneornot):
        Descansaunpocoantes(de)que    Restalittlebeforewegotothe
          vayamosal x-(- gimnasio.              gym.
        Nadaremosdespués(de)que        We'llswimafteritgetshotter.
          hagamáscalor.
        Siemprecharloconmifamilia      Ialwayschatwithmyfamilyafter
          después(de)quecenamos.          wehavesupper.

Multipleadverbsendingin-mente.  Whentwoormoreadverbsendingin-mente    areusedtogether,the-menteendingisdroppedforallbutthelastone.      Remembertokeepthefeminineformoftheadjective.
        Siemprehablabaclaray            Healwaysspokeclearlyandslowly.
          lentamente.

Negation.  Inanegativesentence,onenegativemustappearimmediatelybefore    theverb(andanydirectorindirectobjectpronouns).  Othernegatives    mayappearsomewhereaftertheverb.  Remembertoconvertindefinitewords    intotheirnegativeequivalentsandtoavoidthepluralformofningún.
        Noesnada.                        It'snothing.(Or:It'snot
                                            anything.
        Nadievieneacájamás.            Nooneevercomeshere.
        Notenemosningúndicionario.      Wedon'thaveanydictionaries.

"And"and"or":y/eando/u.  Ychangestoebeforeawordbeginningwiththe    sound"i".  Likewise,obecomesubeforewordsstartingwiththesound
        Sucartaeslargaeinteresante.  Herletterislongandinteresting.
        Vinieronehicierontodolo        Theycameanddideverythingthey
          posibleparaayudarme.            couldtohelpme.
        Haysieteuochochicosaquí.      Therearesevenoreightkidshere.
̀

                "Onethousand(dollars)"=mil(dólares).  Thewordunisnotusedbeforemil:        Habíamilsoldadoseneldesfile.  Therewereathousandsoldiersin                                            theparade.

"Onemilliondollars"=unmillóndedólares.  Notethespelling(onlyonei    inmillón,accentmarks)andtheuseofdeifanounbeingcounted x-(-     follows.  Thepluralformmillonesisusedfortwomillionandabove:
        Madridtienetresmillones        Madridhasthreemillion
          dehabitantes.                    inhabitants.

"Another"=otro(-a).  YouCANNOTusetheindefintearticleun(-a)before    otro:
        Tengootraidea.                  I'vegotanotheridea.

"Another"+number+noun.  InSpanishthewordotrosoccursbefore,notafter    thenumber:
        Tengoquehacerotrasmilcosas.  Ihavetodoathousandother
                                            things.

"Time":tiempovs.vezvs.hora.      Tiempo(inadditiontomeaning"weather")referstotimeinthegeneralor    abstractsense,similarto"era"or"epoch",ortimeassomethingwhich    passes:
        Estostiempossondifíciles.      Thesetimesarehard.
        Notengotiempoparaleernada.    Idon'thavetimetoreadanything.̀

      Vezmeanstimeinthesenseof"occurence":
        Estavezvoyaganar.              ThistimeI'mgoingtowin.
        muchasveces                      manytimes
        aveces                            attimes,sometimes
        algunasveces                      sometimes

    Horareferstoaspecifictimeoftheday:
  'p"&         Es(la)horadecomer.            It'stimetoeat.
        ¿Sabeslahora?                    Doyouknowthetime?

"Mostof"+nounisgenerallylamayorpartede:
 x-(-         Pasaremoslamayorpartedeldía    We'llspendmostofthedayat
          enelcentrocomerial.            theshoppingcenter.

"Morethan"=másque(normally)andmásdebeforeanumber.  Thesameapplies    to"lessthan",menosqueormenosde.
        Ellasabemásqueyo.              SheknowsmorethanIdo.
        Mequedanmenosdecincohoras.    I'vegotlessthanfivehoursleft.

"The...thCentury"=elSiglo...(usingRomannumeralsinwriting,and    cardinalnumbersinspeech:
        elSigloXX(veinte)              the20thCentury

"At/inthebeginning/middle/endof"+periodoftime=  Aprincipios/mediados/    finalesde:
        aprincipiosdejunio              atthebeginningofJune
        amediadosdelsigloXIX          inthemiddleofthe19thCentury

Genderofnouns:        elclima      climate,weather
        elcometa      comet;kite
        eldia        day
        elproblema    problem
        elprograma    program
        elsistema    system
        elmapa        map
        lagente      people(sing.)
        laparte      part
        lamano        hand
        el/laartista  artist(andotherwordsendingin-ista)
    Reminder:Nounsendingin-ción,-dad,-umbre,-ie,and-sisaretypically    feminine.

"Mr.andMrs.García"or"theGarcías"=losGarcía.  Notethatthefamily    nameisnotgivenintheplural.
        AnocheconocíalosGómez.        LastnightImetMr.&Mrs.Gómez.

"Mr.Clinton/PresidentClinton/DoctorClinton/etc."  Whentalkingabout    (ratherthanto)apersonandusingatitleplusthelastname,the    definitearticleisneeded.  Alsorememberthepersonalaifthisisthe x-(-     directobjectofaverb.
        ¿VistealaseñoraSánchez?        DidyouseeMrs.Sánchez?
        NomefíodeldoctorMartínez.    Idon'ttrustDr.Martínez.
        QuieropresentartealgeneralPaz.IwanttointroduceyouGeneralPaz.

"Thebest/richestintheworld"=elmejor/másricodelmundo.  Aftera    superlativeusede(noten)plusthegroup.
        elmejorestudiantedelaclase    thebeststudentintheclass

"Upon/on"+-ingformofaverbisusuallyal+infinitive.  Thisconstruction    mayalsobeusedtoreplacecuandoplusaconjugatedverb.
        AlsalirtopamosconMarta.        UponleavingwebumpedintoMarta.
                                          Or:Whenweleft,weranintoMarta.

"Individual"=individuo(noun)orindivual(adjective).  Individualisnot    usedasanoun("anindividual").
        unindividuoextraño              astrangeindividual
        unalecciónindividual            anindividuallesson

"Character"=elpersonaje(personinamovie,orstory)orelcarácter    (personality).  [Note:  Thepluralofcarácteriscaracteres(theaccent    actuallyshiftstoadifferentsyllable).]
        Elpersonajeprincipaltieneun    Themaincharacterhasavery
          caráctermuyfuerte.              strongpersonality.

"Theaudience"=elpúblico(notlaaudiencia).
        Esoledirvirtiómuchoalpúblico.Thatreallydelightedtheaudience.

"Toremindoneofsomething"=recordarleaunounacosa[withoutde,because    recordarcanmean"tobringtomind"]:
        Esomerecuerdaminiñez.          Thatremindsmeofmychildhood.

"As"=mientras(when"as"means"while")[andoftencomowhen"as"means    "like"].
    Mientrascaminaba,mepreguntaba...  AsIwalkedalongIwondered...

"Because":comovs.porquevs.puestoque.  Allthreeexpressionsmean    "because",buttherearerestrictionsonwhencomoandporquemaybeused. x-(-     Comomayonlybeusedwhenitsclauseoccursafterthegoverningverb,and    porquemaybeusedonlyafterthegoverningverb.
        Comosehacíatarde,nosfuimos    Sinceitwasgettinglate,we
          enseguida.                        leftrightaway.
        Nosfuimosenseguida,porque      Weleftrightaway,sinceitwas
          sehacíatarde.                    gettinglate.
        [Puestoquecouldhavebeenusedineithercase.]

"Becauseof"=acausade,debidoa,orpor.  YouCANNOTuseporquede:
        Cancelaronlareuniónacausade  Thecanceledthemeetingbecauseof
          latormenta.                      thestorm.

"Since".  When"since"means"because",usepuestoque(orcomoorporqueas    explainedabove).  Whenitisusedas"sincethetimethat"useddesde    (preposition)ordesdeque(conjunction).
        Estudiodesdelastres.            I'vebeenstudyingsince3:00.
        DesdequeColónllegóa            Since(theyearwhen)Columbus
          lasAmericas,lascosas...        cametotheAmericas,things...

"Ago":(hace)+periodoftime+apasttense.  Ifthegoverningverbisinthe    preteritorimperfect,hace(presenttenseofhacer)isused.  Ifthe    governingverbisinthepastperfecttense,hacía(theimperfect)isused:
        Vilapelículahaceunmes.        Isawthemovieamonthago.
        Haceunmes(que)vilapelícula.  "  "  "    "  "  "    "
        Mehabíaquejadohacíaunaño.    Ihadcomplainedayearearlier.
        Hacíaunañomehabíaquejado.    "  "      "    "  "    "
        [Seehandoutonpreterit,p.4]

"For"+periodoftime+Englishperfect(progressive)tense("have/had    beendoingsomethingsomething").
  

      Foractionsstartinginthepastandcontinuingonintopresenttime x-(-     ("havebeendoingsomethingfor..."),usethePRESENTtenseofthe    regularverbwithhace(+periódodetiempo)quebeforethatverb,or    desdehace(+periódodetiempo)afterthatverb:
        Hacecincoañosquevivoaquí.    I'vebeenlivingherefor5years.
        Vivoaquídesdehacecincoaños.    "    "    "    "    "  "  "

    Foractionsstartinginthedistantpastandcontinuingonintoregular    pasttime("hadbeendoingsomethingfor..."),wesimplybackshiftthe    aboveintotheimperfect.  Thatis,usetheIMPERFECTtenseoftheregular    verbwithhacía(+periódodetiempo)quebeforethatverb,ordesdehacía    (+periódodetiempo)afterthatverb:
        Hacia5añosquevivíaallí.      Ihadbeenlivingtherefor5years.
        Vivíaallídesdehacía5años.    "  "  "    "      "    "  "  "

"For"+periodoftimeindicatinghowlongsomethinglasted(somethingviewed    ashavingended)=pororduranteorsometimesnopreposition.        Vivimosallíporcincoaños.      Welivedtherefiveyears.
        Vivimosallídurantecincoaños.  "    "    "    "    "
        Vivimosallícincoaños.          "    "    "    "    "

    "By...-ing"isnormallyrenderedusingjustthe-ndoform(gerund)ofthe    verbinvolved(andnotusingtheprepostionpor;seeentrybelow):
        Aprendemosescribiendo.            Welearnbywriting.

"Becauseof...-ing"or"For...-ing"isoftentranslatedwithporplusthe    infinitive;notethatthepastinfinitiveisfrequentlyusedifaprevious    actionisindicated:
        Loqueremosporsertanamable.    Welovehimforbeingsokind
                                            (becauseheissokind).
        Loencarcelaronporhaberrobado  Theputhiminjailforrobbing
          amihermana.                    mysister(becausehehadrobbed
                                            mysister).
 x-(- 

Verbofobservation+directobject+"-ing".  Afterverbssuchas"see",    "hear","observe","notice",etc.,then-ndoform(gerund)maybeusedto    expresstheactionbeingobserved(orotherconstructionsmaybeemployed,    suchaninfinitiveorarelativeclause):
        Laoímoscantando.                Weheardhersinging.
    or:Laoímoscantar.                  Weheardhersing.
̀

  "-ing"wordsasadjectives:"thekissingbandit","runningwater","asmiling    face",etc.  Youcannotusethe-ndoformofaverbasanadjective    modifyinganoun.  Insteadyoushoulduseanadjective,arelativeclause    orsomeotheradjectivalconstruction:
        aguacorriente                    runningwater
        unladrónmentiroso                alyingthief
        untonodeconfianza              aconfidingtone
        uncaballoquecorcovea(ba)        abuckinghorse

Preposition+"-ing"formofaverb.  Usetheinfinitive(notthe-ndoform    [gerund]ofaverb)afteraprepostion:
        Antesdesalir,mebesó.          Beforeleaving,he/shekissedme.
        Lohicimossinquejarnos.          Wediditwithoutcomplaining.

"Torealize(cometounderstand)"=darsecuenta(de);"toaccomplish/carry    out"=realizar.  Rememberthatrealizarcannotbeusedas"torealize    (tounderstand)":
        ¿Notedascuentadequete        Don'tyourealizethatIloveyou?
          quiero?
        Voyarealizarmissueños.        I'mgoingtofullfil/accomplish

"Tofallinlovewith"=enamorarsede";"inlove"=enamorado/a:        JorgeseenamoródeIsabel.        JorgefellinlovewithIsabel.
        Síestálocamenteenamorado.      Yes,he'smadlyinlove.


 x-(- "Tomarry(getmarriedto)"=casarsecon.  "Tomarry(performthemarriage    ceremony)"=casar:
        SilviasecasóconJuanayer.      Silviamarried(gotmarriedto)
                                            Juanyesterday.
        ElpadreGómezloscasó.          FatherGómezmarriedthem
                                            (performedthemarriageceremony).


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