Curriculum Vitae

Glenn J. Merkel, Ph.D.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Indiana University School of Medicine
Fort Wayne Center
2101 Coliseum Blvd., E.
Fort Wayne, IN 46805 (phone: 260-481-6735; Fax: 260-481-6408; e-mail: merkel@ipfw.edu;
web: http://users.ipfw.edu/merkel)

Education
B.S. in Biology,1973, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA

Ph.D. in Microbiology (minor in toxicology),1978, Dept. of Microbiology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (in the laboratory of Dr. J. J. Perry)

Postdoctoral training in Mycology, 1978-1981, Dept. of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (in the laboratory of Dr. J. M. Becker)

Employment
1973-1974, Microbiologist, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA

1974-1978, Graduate Research Assistant, Dept. of Microbiology, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC

1978-1981, Postdoctoral Research Associate, Dept. of Microbiology, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

1981-1989, Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Ft. Wayne, IN

1989-present, Associate Professor of Microbiology and Immunology (tenured), Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Ft. Wayne, IN

Professional Organizations

Member, American Society for Microbiology
Past Councillor, American Society for Microbiology
Member, Infectious Diseases Society of America
Member, International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Member, Indiana Branch American Society for Microbiology
Past President, Indiana Branch American Society for Microbiology (7/1/92-6/30/93)
Past Newsletter Editor, Indiana Branch American Society for Microbiology (7/1/92-6/30/98
Secretary/Treasurer, Indiana Branch American Society for Microbiology (7/1/98-6/30/01)

Honors and Awards

1995 Recipient of the Powell Award for Service to the Indiana Branch American Society for Microbiology

1998 Recipient of the I.U. School of Medicine=s AOutstanding Basic Science Instructor@ at the Fort Wayne Center

2000-2001, 2002-2003, 2003 graduating class Outstanding basic science professor awards

2001 I.U. Trustees' Teaching Award

Med. Microbiology & Immunology at the Ft. Wayne Ctr ranked in the top 10 classes at IUSM, 2000-2001

Best 1st year class at the Ft. Wayne Ctr for 2001-2002, 2002-2003 academic years
 

Current Teaching Assignment Course Director and sole Instructor, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, J525 (I. U. Sch. of Medicine Freshman Medical Program), 7 credit hours, 100 contact hours/year (lecture, lab, and discussions). Current Professional Service
Reviewer for Clinical Infectious Diseases and Infectious Diseases (Official journals for the Infectious Diseases Society of America).

Current University Service
Radiation Safety Committee (Purdue, West Lafayette)
Center Emergency Officer

Grants and Fellowships
(Principle Investigator for all grants listed)
National Institutes of Health, NIGMS Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1979-1981
Indiana Univ. Sch. of Med. Biomedical Research Support Grant, $15,000, 1981-1982
Indiana Univ. Sch. of Med. Biomedical Research Support Grant, $8,200, 1989-1990
Indiana Univ. Inter-campus Research Fund, $9,700, 1993-1994
Indiana Univ. Sch. of Med. Biomedical Research Support Grant, $13,500, 1994-1996
Indiana Univ. Sch. of Med. Biomedical Research Support Grant, $11,800, 1996-1997
GTE Foundation, $10,000 to establish a computer lab at the Fort Wayne Center, 1997
GTE Foundation, $5,000 to purchase software for computer lab at the Fort Wayne Center, 1997
I.U. Inter-campus Research Fund, $9,500, 1998-1999
GlaxoSmithKline Grant, $30,000, 2000-2002
Lutheran Foundation, $190,000, 2003-2006

Technologies registered with Indiana University Advanced Research & Technology Institute (Office of Technology Transfer)
"Diagnostic monoclonal antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans with antifungal properties" (#9729)
"IgA monoclonal antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans useful as a diagnostic screening tool" (#9810)
"Anti-peptidoglycan monoclonal antibody for the diagnosis of bacterial septicemia" (#0109)

Publications
1. Merkel, G. J. 1975. Observations on the attachment of Thiothrix to biological surfaces in activated sludge. Water Research 9: 881-885.

2. Merkel, G. J. and J. J. Perry. 1977. Increases cooxidative biodegradation of malathion in soil via cosubstrate enrichment. Agricult. and Food Chem. 25: 1011-1012.

3. Merkel, G. J. and J. J. Perry. 1977. Effect of growth substrate on thermal death of thermophilic bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34: 626-629.

4. Merkel, G. J., W. H. Underwood, and J. J. Perry. 1978. Isolation of thermophilic bacteria capable of growth solely on long-chain hydrocarbons. FEMS Lett. 3: 81-83.

5. Merkel, G. J., S. S. Stapleton, and J. J. Perry. 1978. Isolation and peptidoglycan of gram negative hydrocarbon utilizing thermophilic bacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 109: 141-148.

6. Merkel, G. J., D. R. Durham, and J. J. Perry. 1980. The atypical cell wall composition of Thermomicrobium roseum. Can. J. Microbiol. 26: 556-559.

7. Merkel, G. J. and J. J. Perry. 1980. Phospholipid composition and heat sensitivity in a thermophilic bacterium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 619: 68-75.

8. Merkel, G. J., F. Naider, and J. M. Becker. 1980. Amino acid uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane vesicles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 595: 109-120.

9. Kahn, S. A., G. J. Merkel, J. M. Becker, and F. Naider. 1981. Synthesis of the dodecapeptide a-mating factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Internat. J. Peptide Protein Res. 17: 219-230.

10 Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1987. Mitogenic and morphogenic effects of a bovine salivary gland extract on astrocytes and fibroblasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 924: 492-501.

11. Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1987. Cell surface-specific immunoglobulin inhibits a-factor mediated morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Can. J. Microbiol. 33: 331-335.

12. Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1988. Factors influencing the interaction of Candida albicans with fibroblast cell cultures. Infect. Immun. 56: 792-801.

13. Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1989. The effects of amphotericin B on the interaction of Candida albicans with fibroblast cultures. Can. J. Microbiol. 35: 255-259.

14. Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1989. Conditions affecting the amphotericin B- mediated inhibition of Candida albicans attachment to cell cultures. Can. J. Microbiol. 35: 260-264.

15. Katz, S., G. J. Merkel, W. J. Folkening, R. S. Rosenthal, and J. L. Grosfeld. 1990. Blood clearance and organ localization of Candida albicans. Surgical Forum 41: 66-70.

16. Merkel, G. J. 1990. Lupus anticoagulants. February Issue of The Timely Perspective (Northeast Indiana Chapter of the Lupus Foundation).

17. Katz, S., G. J. Merkel, W. J. Folkening, R. S. Rosenthal, and J. L. Grosfeld. 1991. Impaired clearance and organ localization of Candida albicans in obstructive jaundice. J. Ped. Surg. 26: 904-907.

18. Merkel, G. J. 1992. Effects of culture conditions on the in vitro infection of fibroblasts by Candida albicans. Can. J. Microbiol. 38: 135-142.

19. Merkel, G. J. and R. K. Cunningham. 1992. The interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with primary rat lung cell cultures. J. Med. Vet. Mycology 30: 115-121.

20. Katz, S., J. L. Grosfeld, W. J. Folkening, R. S. Rosenthal, and G. J. Merkel. 1992. Initial organ localization of blood- borne Candida albicans in a rat model of disseminated candidiasis. J. Med. Microbiol. 37: 291-295.

21. Merkel, G. J. 1992. Infections and virulence factors associated with the two pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. November/December Indiana Branch American Society for Microbiology Newsletter.

22. Merkel, G. J. and B. A. Scofield. 1993. Conditions affecting the adherence of Cryptococcus neoformans to rat glial and lung cells in vitro. J. Med. Vet. Mycology 31: 55-64.

23. Katz, S., G. J. Merkel, W. J. Folkening, R. S. Rosenthal, and J. L. Grosfeld. 1993. Blood clearance and organ localization of Candida albicans and E. coli following dual infection. J. Ped. Surg. 28: 329-333.

24. Rescorla, F. J., G. J. Merkel, W. Folkening, E. Gankiewicz, R. Rosenthal, and J. L. Grosfeld.1993. Effects of immunosuppression on organ localization and growth of blood-borne yeasts. Surgical Forum 43: 601-603.

25. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1994. Comparisons between in vitro glial cell adherence and internalization of acapsular and capsulated strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Med. Vet. Mycology. 32: 361-372.

26. Stoddard, S. L., G. J. Merkel, J. A. Cook, A. R. Zinsmeister, and S. W. Carmichael. 1994. Adrenal medulla and Parkinson's disease. Microscopy Res. and Tech. 29: 151-154.

27. Merkel, G. J. 1994. Pathogenesis of the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Clinical Advances in the treatment of Fungal Infections. 5:1-13.

28. Merkel, G. J., B.A. Scofield, F. J. Rescorla, R. Yang, and J. L. Grosfeld. 1995. Reduced in vivo survival of a Cryptococcus neoformans adherence mutant in a rat model of Cryptococcosis. Can. J. Microbiol. 41: 428-432.

29. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1997. The in vitro interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with human lung epithelial cells. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 19: 203-213.

30. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1999. An opsonizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a non- capsular epitope expressed on Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 67: 4994-5000.

31. Merkel,G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 2001. Interaction of Staphylococcus epidermidis with endothelial cells in vitro. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 189: 217-223.

32. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 2000. The effects of Cryptococcus neoformans secreted antigens on TNFa-induced ICAM-1 expression on human lung epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 29: 329-332.

33. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 2001. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that binds to an epitope on soluble bacterial peptidoglycan fragments. Clin. Diagnostic Lab. Immunol. 8: 647-651.

34. Vilensky, J.A., B.L. O'Connor, J.D. Fortin, G.J. Merkel, A.M. Jimenez, B.A. Scofield, and J.B. Kleiner. 2002. Histologic analysis of neural elements in the human sacroiliac joint. Spine. 27:1202-1207.

35. Contributing author, USMLE Step 1, E.F. Goljan, Ed., 2002, Mosby.

36.  Fortin, J.D., J.A. Vilensky, and G.J. Merkel. 2003. Can the sacroiliac joint cause sciatica? Pain Physician. 6: 269-271.

Manuscripts in preparation
Invited review: Merkel, G.J. 2005. The effects of Cryptococcus neoformans antigens on immune-related responses. In preparation for the journal Micologia.

Merkel, G.J., B.A. Scofield, and Erica Wood. 2005. Adherence and invasion of human microvascular enothelial cells and pulmonary epithelial cells by Staphylococcus aureus.

Published Abstracts (meeting presentations)

1. Merkel, G. J., S. S. Stapleton, and J. J. Perry. 1976. Isolation and characterization of thermophilic hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

2. Merkel, G. J. and J. J. Perry. 1977. Relationship between heat sensitivity and the lipid composition of thermophilic bacteria. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

3. Merkel, G. J., D. R. Durham, and J. J. Perry. 1978. Characterization of the outer envelope of Thermomicrobium roseum. Amer. Soc. for Microbiol. Membrane Conference, Charleston, SC.

4. Merkel, G. J., D. R. Durham, and J. J. Perry. 1978. Classification of gram negative thermophilic bacteria based on the amino acid composition of the peptidoglycan. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

5. Merkel, G. J., F. Naider, and J. M. Becker. 1979. The regulation of amino acid transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ammonia. Ann. Meeting Kentucky/Tennessee Branch Amer. Soc. for Microbiology.

6. Merkel, G. J., F. Naider, and J. M. Becker. 1980. The regulation of amino acid transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ammonia ions. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

7. Merkel, G. J., F. Naider, and J. M. Becker. 1981. Receptor-mediated binding of the yeast peptide mating pheromone a-factor to Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane vesicles. Fed. Proc. 40: 1759.

8. Shenbagamurthi, P., G. J. Merkel, J. M. Becker, F. Naider, and A. S. Steinfeld. 1981. Synthesis and biological activity of analogs of the a yeast mating hormone. 7th Amer. Peptide Symposium.

9. Plotkin, B., G. J. Merkel, and D. Bemis. 1982. N-acetylglucosamine-mediated adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica to hamster lung fibroblasts. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

10. Merkel, G. J., G. Patrick, V. Bergdall, and C. Phelps. 1983. Primary culture of rat cerebellar neurons in medium supplemented with bovine parotide gland extract. Ann. Meeting Society for Neuroscience.

11. Merkel, G. J. 1985. Biological effects of bovine parotide gland extract on rat cerebellar cells and skin fibroblasts. Fed. Proc. 44: 484.

12. Merkel, G. J., C. L. Phelps, and R. W. Roeske. 1985. The effects of "plasma membrane - specific" IgG on a pheromone - mediated morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

13. Evanson, J. A., G. J. Merkel, and Y. C. Chen. 1986. Differential expression of vimentin in normal and transformed phenotypes. Ann. Meeting Indiana Acad. Sci.

14. Evanson, J. A., G. J. Merkel, and Y. C. Chen. 1987. Expression of vimentin in mammalian cells transformed by a temperature - sensitive mutant of Avian Sarcoma virus. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

15. Evanson, J. A., G. J. Merkel, and Y. C. Chen. 1987. Intermediate filament expression in normal and transformed cells. 7th Internat. Congress of Virol., Edmonton, Canada.

16. Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1987. Studies on the interaction of Candida albicans with fibroblastic and epithelial cell lines. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

17. Hoopengardner, K. K., G. J. Merkel, and Y. C. Chen. 1988. The effects of ribavirin on phenotypic characteristics of normal rat kidney cells transformed by a temperature - sensitive mutant of Rous Sarcoma virus. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

18. Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1988. Inhibition of C. albicans infection of cultured fibroblasts by amphotericin B: Effects of mammalian cell type and serum concentration. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

19. Merkel, G. J. and C. L. Phelps. 1989. Growth conditions affecting the interaction of Candida albicans with fibroblast cultures. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

20. Merkel, G. J. 1990. Effects of culture conditions on Candida albicans attachment and chromium-51 release from fibroblast monolayers. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

21. Merkel, G. J., R. J. Morelock, and R. K. Cunningham. 1991. Adherence of Cryptococcus neoformans to lung epithelial cells and skin fibroblasts in vitro. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

22. Stoddard, S. L., G. M. Tyce, J. A. Cook, G. J. Merkel, et al. 1991. The effect of anti-parkinsonian medication on the adrenal medulla of the mouse. Ann. Meeting Soc. for Neuroscience.

23. Merkel, G. J. and E. Gankiewicz. 1992. Conditions affecting the adherence of Cryptococcus neoformans to glial and lung epithelial cells. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

24. Stoddard, S. L., G. J. Merkel, et al. 1992. MPTP does not mimic the effects of parkinson's disease on the adrenal medulla of the mouse. Ann. Meeting Soc. for Neuroscience.

25. Stoddard, S. L., J. A. Cook, G. J. Merkel, et al. 1992. The effect of MPTP on catecholamine content of the mouse adrenal medulla. 7th Internat. Catecholamine Symposium, Amsterdam.

26. Merkel, G. J. and B. Scofield. 1993. Preliminary characterization of the Cryptococcus neoformans receptor mediating in vitro adherence to glial cells. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol.

27. Stoddard, S. L., G. J. Merkel, et al. 1993. The effects of dietary L-dopa and carbidopa and MPTP on the adrenal medulla of the mouse. 7th Internat. Symposium on Chromaffin Cell Biology and Pharmacology, Ottawa, Canada.

28. Cook, J. A., G. J. Merkel, et al. 1993. The effects of MPTP treatment and unilateral adrenalectomy on the catecholamine content of the adrenal medulla in mice. Ann. Meeting Soc. for Neuroscience.

29. Stoddard, S. L., G. J. Merkel, et al. 1993. The adrenal medulla in Parkinson's disease. Ann. Meeting Amer. Assoc. of Anatomists.

30. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1993. Inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans adherence to glial cells in culture. 2nd International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, Milano, Italy.

31. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1994. Adherence and internalization of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans to glial cells. The Indiana University Scientific Session - 1994.

32. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1995. The interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with human lung epithelial cells. Amer. Soc. for Microbiol., Washington, D.C.

33. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1997. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that recognize non-capsular epitopes of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infectious Diseases Society of America, San Francisco.

34. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1998. An opsonizing monoclonal antibody recognizing a non-capsular epitope expressed on Cryptococcus neoformans. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol., Atlanta.

35. Rudiger, D.S., G.J. Merkel, B.A. Scofield, D.S. Darr, S.D. Allen, and R.S. Rosenthal. 1998. Characterization of anti-peptidoglycan antibodies that differentiate between cell wall fragments of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol., Atlanta.

36. Merkel, G.J. and B.A. Scofield. 1999. An established cell line as a model for Cryptococcus neoformans interactions with human endothelial cells. Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. for Microbiol., Chicago.

Ongoing Research Projects

APeptidoglycan as a diagnostic indicator of bacterial septicemia@
The goal of this ongoing project is to determine if a novel monoclonal antibody that recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan can be developed into a tool to diagnose bacterial septicemia. We are currently testing human serum samples to determine the antibody=s sensitivity.

AInteraction of Cryptococcus neoformans with lung epithelial cells@
The goal of this ongoing project is to study the interaction of this yeast with human lung epithelial cells. We are currently examining the effects of cryptococcal secreted antigens on adhesion molecule expression and cytokine release.

AImmune response to novel secreted antigens from Cryptococcus neoformans@
The goal of this research is to determine if a secreted antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody will induce protective immunity and serve as a vaccine candidate for preventing cryptococcosis.

AThe interaction of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus with human endothelium and epithelium@
The goal of this research is to study how S. epidermidis and S. aureus, the two most common causes of hospital-acquired septicemia, interacts with endothelial and epithelial cells and what inflammatory reactions result.